03 December 2008 - A Other on in Nairobi,Kenya
Internet Governance Forum
3 December 2008
Note: The following is the output of the real-time captioning taken during
Third Meeting of the IGF, in Hyderabad, India. Although it is largely
accurate, in some cases it may be incomplete or inaccurate due to
inaudible passages or transcription errors. It is posted as an aid to
understanding the proceedings at the session, but should not be treated as an
>>MARKUS KUMMER: We're ready to start the Opening Session.
>>CHAIRMAN RAJA: Excellencies, ladies and gentlemen, now we will proceed with the opening session.
I do hope that this session will give concrete deliberations and fruits thereupon.
At the end of these sessions, some of the new ideas and new visions we will have after the deliberation
is going to be held.
First speakers will be Mr. Jainder Singh, secretary, department of information technology, government
Mr. Singh, please.
>>JAINDER SINGH: Thank you, sir.
His Excellency, Minister for communication of information technology, government of India, Mr. Jomo,
assistant Secretary-General of the United Nations, Mr. Nitin Desai, special advise or to the SecretaryGeneral of the United Nations, excellencies, ladies and gentlemen, I deem it a privilege to extend a very
warm welcome to all of you to the third meeting of the Internet Governance Forum.
The exponential growth of information technology and the Internet has transformed our lives.
However, such modern progress requires access to the Internet.
The theme of the IGF at Hyderabad is "Internet for All," and reaching the next billion is the immediate
target that we have set ourselves.
The growth towards the next billion will primarily be driven by countries in Asia, Africa and Latin
The Internet is today creating a global village with free democratic and inclusive development. The
Internet is a means through which we can bring about economic and social changes in nations across the
globe.To achieve Internet for all, there is a need to ensure participation of all linguistic groups in cyberspace.
There is a growing concern that many languages are being unintentionally ignored during the rapid
growth of the Internet. All over the world, people need to access the Internet using their local
languages. Only then the true potential of the Internet can be realized and there can be hope of
reducing the digital divide.
In this context, Internationalized Domain Names also assume importance. The open nature of the
Internet sets it apart. The Internet is underpinned by democratic values of openness and accessibility.
Freedom of expression is a right which needs to be protected. India is an open society, and as a
democratic nation, we support the principles of openness in the Internet domain.
The important matter of security will also be discussed in a number of sessions. The stakeholders in the
Internet need to do more to promote Internet security. There is a greater need to exchange and make
available data pertaining to criminal attacks, as well as technological solutions to resolve and prevent
incidents. Securing cyberspace becomes a shared responsibility of all the stakeholders.
This IGF will also stress the importance of the inclusion of the world's 650 million people with
disabilities. It would be our endeavor to adopt technological measures that provide equitable and easy
access to people who are physically challenged. This IGF, I am sure, would not only reaffirm our
commitment to this objective, but would also work out measures to be achieved to include persons with
Ladies and gentlemen of the Internet community, let us all work together to expand the reach ofthe
Internet in a way that benefits peoples around the world. Let us also hope that not only the Internet
continues to grow at a fast pace, but it will unleash forces which bridge gaps between nations and
economic classes. Once again, I thank all of you for participating in this meeting in Hyderabad.
Welcome to Hyderabad. Welcome to India.
Ladies and gentlemen, thank you very much.
[ Applause ]
>>CHAIRMAN RAJA: Thank you, Mr. Singh. The next speaker is Mr. Subramaniam Ramadorai, CEO and
managing director, Tata Consultancy Services, Limited. Mr. Ramadorai, please.
>>SUBRAMANIAM RAMADORAI: Excellencies, distinguished participants, ladies and gentlemen, it has
been a difficult week for all of us here, especially those of us who are from Mumbai. The heinous
terrorist attacks in my city have left us feeling numb and upset about the loss of innocent lives.
However, I am glad to report that the famous go-getting spirit of Mumbai, though impacted by the
violent attacks, has not been broken, and the city is getting back to business as usual.
[ Applause ]>>SUBRAMANIAM RAMADORAI: In light of recent events, I am heartened to see that so many of you
have decided to continue with your visit to India and I extend a special thank you to every person who
has come to the IGF for your show of solidarity and support for the people of India.
[ Applause ]
>>SUBRAMANIAM RAMADORAI: Thank you.
So, on behalf of the International Chamber of Commerce, BASIS initiative Business Action to Support
the Information Society, and my company, Tata Consultancy Services, it's my great pressure to join our
hosts in welcoming you to my country, India, in this third Internet Governance Forum. I would like to
thank the host Indian government, sponsoring organizations and the people of India, along with Mr.
Nitin Desai, special advisor to the U.N. Secretary-General for Internet governance, the chair of the IGF
Multistakeholder Advisory Group. Additional thanks to Markus Kummer, the executive coordinator of
the IGF secretariat, and his team.
Last, but not the least, I would like to extend a special thank you to the U.N. Secretary-General, Ban Kimoon, Under-Secretary-General Sha Zukang, and Assistant Secretary-General Kwame Jomo for their
Earlier this year, I assumed responsibility as chair of BASIS. Bringing global business experience to this
event, BASIS draws together companies and associations from a wide range of sectors and geographies.
I am involved in BASIS because of my conviction that as a major stakeholder, business has a fundamental
role to play in continued global development of the Internet. I am sure that BASIS members will make
significant contributions to discussions that will take place over the next four days.
It's both an exciting and a challenging time to embark on the Internet governance dialogues ahead of
us. It's also particularly fitting that we are gathered here in India for the occasion. We are a country
that is relying on technology to play an active role in economic and social development. India continues
to embrace new technologies and leapfrog older technologies. Tata Consultancy Services has
transformed existing business models in technology-based services. I am pleased the success of my
company is but one indication of the vibrancy of this sector in my home country.
Globally, 1.5 billion Internet users, thanks to the Internet, the world is witnessing the emergence of
innovative new business models that are promoting an inclusive and global information society.
Business continues to play a significant role in facilitating Internet access, thereby changing the life of
the people it reaches.
Take one example. Each year, ICC world business and development awards recognize initiatives that
contribute to the advancement of the Millennium Development Goals. This year, among the winning
entries, there are several ICT and Internet initiatives, highlighting the benefit for social and economic
development, projects varied in size and ambition from providing mobile banking services in Africa to
raising awareness with grass roots communities of diseases such as AIDS and possible actions to combat
them.My company, also plays a role in bringing the positive impact of the Internet to bear upon communities
in our project which brings the power of information and knowledge to rural farmers in India through
the Internet and the cell phone has been recognized as one of this year's most innovative users of
technology by the "Wall Street Journal."
Business is also helping create an enabling environment to help more people jump onto the Internet
express by making significant contributions to skills development and human and institutional capacitybuilding.
This is essential to bringing the benefits of the Internet to more people. And we don't do this
exclusively for philanthropic reasons. It makes good business sense to help others access the Internet,
as well as a well-educated workforce in turn ensures well-functioning organizations. And yet with all the
benefits of the Internet, the Internet has to offer, today, approximately 5 billion people across the globe
still do not have access to it. So to create an even more inclusive, innovative, and productive
environment, what challenges do we face? On one hand, lack of a dependable electricity source creates
access problems for many in developing countries, especially those in rural areas. Since they do not
have sufficiently reliable Internet access to manage the flow of data that is needed, people in remote
areas have difficulty accessing useful and important information. We also need to look for cost-effective
devices that enable everybody to become a netizen. In India and many other emerging economies, the
cell phone, rather than the PC, seems to be the preferred mode of accessing the Internet. On the other
hand, those who already have Internet access face challenges that range from data and privacy
protection to keeping our children safe from the Internet predators. I believe every step forward in
Internet development brings with it new challenges that we all need to deliberate and discuss, while
improving access to information and services, convergence, for example, in all of its forms raises new
issues. ICC/BASIS and the government of Finland's workshop this Friday will explore convergence. And
we look forward to seeing through.
One thing that exists here in Hyderabad is our common desire to expand the benefits of the Internet to
the next billion users, or the last billion users who should not be left behind.
Internet governance requires the input of all stakeholders -- business, governments, technical
community, civil society -- we must all work together, listening, contributing, exchanging views, and best
practices. This is how we learn from each other and build partnerships. We must discuss openly and
candidly at the international level so that informed policy approaches can be implemented at the
national and regional levels. Business recognizes that technology alone cannot provide all the solutions.
Likewise, no stakeholder can effectively address these issues alone.
But the key driver remains the innovative and competitive nature of the private sector that has spurred
innovation and the rapid Internet development we have seen today.
Business knows that continued Internet developmentrequires creativity and investments in
infrastructures as well as competitive and open markets.Tata has been working the leading NGO to develop a system to help rural communities, even those that do not have any direct Internet access, to not only organize, use, and manage information, but, most importantly, to be able to share it amongst themselves quickly and easily. The ability to do this without
Internet connectivity is a compelling motivator to bring more communities into the information fold.
Butthe benefits increase dramatically if the village has Internet connectivity.
We all depend on information policy-making, informed policy-making, which results from working with
all stakeholders to help create such environments in which innovation and investment can thrive. The
global business view is important, because we have diverse experience and can help identify what has
and has not worked and why it does not or does not work from our perspectives.
In the current economic climate, entrepreneurs and investors will look for more predictability and
stability before investing time or money on Internet ventures. The private sector believes that the
Internet can be a part of the solution to the current crisis.
We have seen how competitive markets push prices down, and, in turn, enable those at the lower end
of the income pyramid to be able to afford access to the Internet. When addressing Internet issues over
the coming days, I urge you to consider how competition and economies of scale have facilitated
Internet access around the world.
You must also strive to achieve security for our critical infrastructures and for Internet users alike. To
prevent data and privacy and prevent users falling victims to cybercrime, we must continue building a
culture of cybersecurity. For us to do this, we need to understand what cybersecurity means in practice
and what role everyone has to play to protect data.
This issue has become extremely critical with new forms of cybercrime emerging each day from various
parts of the globe. There are several sessions tomorrow on this critical subject. And I hope that all of
you will contribute to develop new ideas and suggestions that can take the discussion to the next level.
Business can help devise new and better tools, products, solutions, and policies. I encourage you all to
visit our booth in the global village. There, we will be happy to introduce you to a range of ICC and
BASIS tool kits and policy guides, as well as discuss ways in which we can strengthen our ties.
The IGF is a valuable opportunity to discuss Internet governance issues together on an equal footing.
I look forward to hearing the input of the other stakeholders during our time there.
The experiences and views shared here are tangible and should be carefully considered by each of us in
our efforts going forward.
They will inform public policy and government development activities. They will help policymakers
work with national stakeholders to shape an environment that suits their needs.There is a proverb you may be familiar with. You can never step into the same river twice. A year has
passed since we last met. The IGF. Our experiences and circumstances have changed since Rio. We
should allow our river to continue to run its course and help lead the way towards Egypt next year.
I therefore urge each one of you to make every effort to build upon the discussions taken a year ago in
Rio and to make this year's IGF a great success.
Thank you once again for coming, and I hope while you are here in this historic city you will find some
time to explore its hidden gems.
And remember, Hyderabad is like eBay, a great place to find a bargain.
Thank you so much.
[ Applause ]
>>CHAIRMAN RAJA: Thank you, Mr. RAMADORAI.
The next speaker is Ms. Lynn St. Amour.
Please, Lynn St. Amour.
>>LYNN ST. AMOUR: Mr. Chairman, your excellencies, ladies and gentlemen. It is a pleasure to be here
at the opening of the third Internet Governance Forum.
I'd like to thank the government of India for being such a gracious host, and the Internet Governance
Forum Secretariat and the Multistakeholder Advisory Group for their efforts in organizing the program
As the president and chief executive officer of the Internet Society I would also like to extend our
community's sympathy to all those affected by the recent events in Mumbai. Our thoughts are with
those who have lost families and loved ones, friends and business colleagues.
To start, I would like to say a couple of words about the organization I represent.
The Internet Society is an independent, international, nonprofit, cost-based organization established in
1992 by two of the fathers of the Internet: Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn. We are dedicated to the stability,
continuity and advancement of the Internet, not for its own sake but rather for the benefits the Internet
can bring to all people.
We accomplish this by advancing critical Internet technologies and best practices, and by providing
technical information, advice, and training programs.
We have long been very active in capacity building activities that have helped many developing
countries get online.Of equal importance, we promote national and international policies that support the expansion and
evolution of the Internet throughout the world.
We do all these things by partnering with a broad range of stakeholders, civil society, private sector,
governments, and international organizations.
The Internet Society is also the organizational home for the groups responsible for Internet standards,
including the Internet Engineering Task Force, the IETF, and the IAB. has over 80 chapters around the
world including two chapters here in India.
We are located in Geneva, Switzerland and Washington, D.C., with a distributed work force in 12
countries, including Region of Bureaus in Africa, Latin America, and Asia.
We have been deeply involved throughout the World Summit on the Information Society and then the
Internet Governance Forum.
Our support of the IGF has been significant, including funding assistance and workshop and program
But perhaps more importantly, the Internet Society has brought experts from diverse backgrounds and
geographies with real on the ground experience to every IGF so that the discussion, the experience
sharing, and the practical take-aways are all the richer.
Ladies and gentlemen, we are now at the midpoint of the IGF.
The Internet Governance Forum has convened before on two occasions, and after this meeting, it is due
to meet two more times.
So as we stand at this midpoint, it is worth reflecting on what we have learned from this experience.
By looking back at what we, as a community, have achieved, we can begin to consider our future path.
But first let us remember where this journey began.
Before the IGF, there was the World Summit on the Information Society. It was an important series of
events culminating in the Tunis meeting that called for the Internet Governance Forum. Yet, WSIS
struggled with enter governmental constraints. At times, accreditation, seating arrangements and
formal submissions seemed to take prominence over substantive dialogue. Discussions of important
issues often suffered from the lack of input from experts and affected stakeholders who were excluded
by official protocols, questions of recognition, and other restrictions.
Fortunately, as WSIS evolved over its four-year life span, it became a learning experience for everyone.
Governments began to learn the value of civil society, private sector, and the Internet community's
contributions and nongovernment participants learned to work in a traditional intergovernmental
This became the basis of what we now refer to as multistakeholder engagement.While WSIS itself was not a multistakeholder forum, one of its most significant outcomes was the
We must recognize this as a very significant step forward fromnormal U.N. and intergovernmental way
of doing things.
It has also proved a successful way of dealing with Internet issues.
Some question the accomplishments of the IGF to date, but perhaps they just don't value the
Of course,that's not to say the path has always been smooth. At first, the dialogue in the IGF was
awkward. But relatively quickly, diverse stakeholders learned how to talk together, share experiences,
and work together.
This is seen in the nature of the workshops on this week's agenda but also in other discussions that go
on outside of IGF, such as various national and regional forums addressing Internet matters, and in the
lessons that participants carry from the give back to their home countries to shape their work and
contribute to Internet development.
These are the things we value in a multistakeholder forum.
In many ways, the IGF is very consistent with the Internet model. At the Internet Society we talk a lot
about the Internet model and its worth spending a moment on it here because it underpins the
incredible success of the Internet's evolution to date.
So in practical terms, what does the Internet model mean?
First, the Internet is a network of tens of thousands of networks, drawing overall resilience from
Second, it works because of the collaborative engagement of many organizations. People in
organizations from many backgrounds and with different expertise are involved.
Researchers, business people, civil society, academics and government officials. All this is the key to the
Third, the development of the Internet is based on open standards, which are openly developed and
broadly and freely distributed. Participation is based on knowledge, need, and interest rather than
There are no membership fees, and this is in itself important.
The Internet community has always worked to reduce barriers and encourage broad participation.And finally, the Internet model is also based on widely supported key principles, such as the end-to-end
principle, which encourages the creation of global deployment of innovative, successful, and often
And those who create applications don't need permission to deploy them on the Internet.
And more importantly, users themselves choose which applications suit their needs, hopefully with no
In short, the Internet model is a robust, flexible, adaptive system whose value is greater than the sum of
So at the midpoint IGF, what can we say about it?
Some criticize the IGF as a talk shop, but I believe this critique completely misses the point.
While initially questioning the need, the Internet Society has come to value the opportunities created
by the IGF. We are encouraged to see the pursuit of issues in a multistakeholder engagement model,
and we maintain that these outcomes would not have been possible in any of the traditional,
intergovernmental models that we are aware of.
We recognize that the IGF is a unique forum where ideas can be explored and tested by stakeholders on
an equal footing, unburdened by the constraint of intergovernmental proceedings.
The IGF does things that intergovernmental structures cannot do.
[ Applause ]
>>LYNN ST. AMOUR: Governments and intergovernmental organizations should also value the IGF as
an incredible opportunity. Nothing in the IGF either binds governments to implementation in their
sovereign territory nor prevents them from taking the actions they believe are in the interests of their
citizens. In fact, participating in IGF enriches their and their citizens' decisions.
We should recall the message of the Secretary-General of the United Nations to the opening ceremony
at the IGF last year in Rio, where he said, "This forum is modest in its means, but not in its aspirations. It
may have no power to make decisions but it can inform and inspire those that are in a position to make
So, what next?
How will we measure the IGF's impact?
We can consider that the IGF has positive impact if its program contributes to the deployment of the
Internet in all parts of the world and to building communities and capacity.In the end, the value of the IGF is established by its participants. Those of us here, those who follow
remotely and most importantly, those who come away from this meeting and say, "Yes, I can use that
back home." That is what makes the IGF worthwhile.
It is vital that we listen to all the voices at the IGF and beyond.
The voices of those on the front line of Internet development tell us of the incredible value that the
Internet and its underlying principles brings to them.
From encouraging communication to enhancing openness, enabling creativity and empowering
All of us here have a tremendous opportunity to meet, to explore issues and approaches, to share
experiences, to learn, and to be motivated.
Let us leave the IGF at the end of this week enriched by discussions and connections and return to our
respective communities and countries.
Let us get back to work there, developing the Internet, bringing people online, and spreading the
benefits of the Internet to all.
[ Applause ]
>>CHAIRMAN RAJA: Thank you, Ms. Amour.
The next speaker is Ms. Alice Munyua, coordinator Kenya ICT action network and director
communications commission of Kenya.
>>ALICE MUNYUA: Thank you very much and good afternoon.
Mr. Chairman, Your Excellencies, distinguished guests and all the remote participants, Kenya wishes to
thank India for hosting the third Internet Governance Forum and to extend our sympathy over the
recent acts of terrorism experienced in Mumbai.
The Tunis WSIS summit on the Information Society underscored the need for multistakelholder
processes initiated at the national, regional and international levels to discuss and collaborate on the
expansion and the vision of the Internet as a means to support development efforts to achieve
internationally agreed development goals and objectives, including the MDGs.
It was in this regard that Kenya organized and hosted the first East African Internet Governance Forum
that took place in November 10th to 11th in Nairobi. The forum's main theme was opening the Internet
governance debate in East Africa, thinking globally and acting locally.It was a follow up to international governance forums held in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania and Rwanda to
identify our own local priority issues in the respective countries.
The national IG issues were also used as a building block which is called the East African IGF.
This forum was attended approximately by over 180 stakeholders drawn from the business, civil
society, media, academia, government, as well as individual Internet users and others.
This was the first of its kind in the African region and was initiated from the realization that there was a
need to address very limited participation by African stakeholders in not only the Internet Governance
Forum but also in other global ICT policy processes.
It was organized through a collaborative partnership between various government institutions from the
region, including the various regulatory authorities of the East African countries, the private sector
entities, civil society, media, as well as international partners including the ITU, ISOC and the others.
Some of the priority issues and recommendations identified by the East African IGF meeting, well, one
of them and the most important was around universal affordable access. And from that perspective,
not from an incremental approach, rather focusing on creating which incremental approach focuses on
creating more consumers who are looking at affordable access, looking at creating entrepreneurs,
allowing for innovation that then eventually would translate to social, economic, cultural and political
benefits for all.
The EAIGF also looked at the issues of capacity and skills and noted that as one of the important priority
issues as well as the management of critical Internet resources, including transition from Internet
protocol version 4 to version 6 and more clarity and improved collaboration in the redelegation of
country code top level domain names, specifically top-level domains, specifically the dot UG in Uganda
and the dot RW in Rwanda.
Issues of cybercrime, cybersecurity, privacy, were of -- were considered a priority as well, with ideas
and recommendations around the creation of a setting up of a national computer readiness team, as
well as computer security incident response team and strategies.
The development of national and regional Internet exchange points was considered very important, and
it's already in process in some of the East African countries.
The East African Internet Governance Forum acknowledged the importance of the multistakeholder
process introduced by the WSIS, and for us in the East African region, it has worked and it has worked
very well, especially in Kenya in terms of especially development of the ICT process and the whole
regulatory process. So it is crucial that we continue to work with all stakeholders, giving them all an
equal footing in not only the Internet Governance Forum, but in all other Internet policy related
processes, both at the national, regional, and international levels.Finally, it is going to become a national event prior to the Internet Governance Forum and is going to be
hosted by the government of Tanzania in 2009 just prior to the Cairo Internet Governance Forum. We
wish to thank India again, and thank you, all, for your attention.
[ Applause ]
>>H.E. CHAIRMAN RAJA: Thank you, Ms. Munyua. The next speaker is Mr. Abdul Waheed Khan,
assistant director general, UNESCO.
Please, Mr. Khan.
>>ABDUL WAHEED KHAN: Mr. Chairman, excellencies, distinguished delegates, ladies and gentlemen,
it's a great honor and privilege for me to represent UNESCO at IGF 2008. And as an Indian, I extend to
you all a very warm welcome. And I'd like to thank all those who have expressed their sympathy and
support to the victims of ghastly act of violence perpetrated on the people of Bombay.
Ladies and gentlemen, the Internet has clearly emerged as a powerful medium for dissemination of
information and knowledge. It is inherently democratic and empowering, providing unparalleled
opportunities to realize the dream of a global free flow of ideas and universal access to information and
For UNESCO, the principles of freedom of expression and universal access to information are essential
for building inclusive knowledge societies. These two principles must be safeguarded on the Internet,
and, consequently, in the Internet governance structure.
Internet technologies provide open channels to freely express opinions, but can also be used to restrict
and control information flows. We need clear and globally applicable principles based on human rights
and legal, ethical, and technical standards and legal provisions to organize these channels and promote
freedom of expression.
Access for all in all languages is a priority for UNESCO. We believe it is important to ensure that the
technical structure of the Internet provides access to content in all languages. We therefore contribute
to the development of internationalized domain names. We offer specific expertise in the area of
multilingualism for the development of an inclusive process that would allow an important step in the
evolution of the Internet into a fully global space. Media and information literacy is also critical to
empower all users to use the Internet tools to access information relevant to their needs. There is no
substitute to universal access to information and knowledge, ladies and gentlemen.
During the three days of the IGF here in Hyderabad, UNESCO provides a variety of platforms for
discussion on these and other issues, and my colleagues and myself will participate in many other
debates in order to promote freedom of expression and universal access.
We welcome you all to participate actively in the events that UNESCO has organized.The multistakeholder approach of debates that was initiated at WSIS has proved to be a very effective
modality to work cooperatively to address global policy issues. We look forward to fruitful deliberations
at this forum.
Thank you, ladies and gentlemen, for your attention.
[ Applause ]
>>H.E. CHAIRMAN RAJA: Thank you, Mr. Khan.
The next speaker is Ms. Meredith Atwell Baker, acting assistant secretary of commerce for
communications and information and national telecommunications and information administration
administrator, United States of America.
Please, Ms. Baker.
>>MEREDITH ATWELL BAKER: Well, thank you and good afternoon. Before getting started to the
substance of my remarks, I would like to join with offering my own personal sympathies, as well as those
of the United States, for the great tragedy that occurred last week in Mumbai. As was expressed by
President Bush, we join with the world in mourning --in mourning those who lost their lives, praying for
those who have been injured, and that they will recover, and pledging our full support to India.
As the people of the world's largest democracy recover from these attacks, they can count on the
world's oldest democracy to stand by their side.
I would like to thank the Indian government for their support and organization of this third meeting of
the Internet Governance Forum. Congratulations also go to the tireless efforts of the IGF secretariat and
the Multistakeholder Advisory Group, to ensure what I am confident will be an unquestionable success.
It is a great personal pleasure for me to be here at this meeting of the IGF and to offer some thoughts on
the important role it plays in facilitating a shared understanding of Internet-related issues.
There are, of course, multiple venues to discuss Internet governance and these related issues. So what
makes the IGF so special and such an important venue that it's a can't miss? Well, first of all, the IGF is
the key output of the World Summit on the Information Society. The WSIS was the first time heads of
states came together and recognized the importance of information and communications technologies,
not only as traditional communications mediums, but also as an enabler for the broader economic,
social, and political development.
Second, the IGF, while being affiliated with the broader UnitedNations system, fills a niche that
traditional intergovernmental organizations cannot fill. Its lightweight and decentralized structure
allows it to be flexible in terms of procedure and avoid burdensome preparatory processes. The IGF is
unique in that all stakeholders -- governments, industry, civil society, and the Internet technical
community -- participate in all aspects of the planning and execution on a truly equal footing.The effective multistakeholder Advisory Group that acts as the program committee offers important
input on discussion topics, speakers, and format, has been extremely important in this regard.
Lastly, the fact that there is no pressure at the IGF to negotiate a treaty, a set of contracts, rules of
procedure, or an output document, allows for free, open, and frank exchange of opinions and ideas that
is not replicated in any other international forum.
This makes the IGF truly one of a kind.
I know that some have questioned the usefulness of the IGF, as there are not negotiated outputs or an
elevated role for governments. I would argue that this fails to recognize the agreed purpose of the
forum. At the ITU, when the international community is establishing rules and norms for the allocation
of radio frequency spectrum, it makes sense for governments to have the leadership role. At ICANN,
when the international community is coordinating the Internet's unique technical identifier system, it
makes sense for the private sector to take the preeminent role.
But here, at the IGF, when the international community is meeting to exchange information and build
capacity to foster the sustainability, the robustness, the security, stability, and development of the
Internet, this must happen in truly a multistakeholder fashion, a task that only the IGF can perform.
While the United States is fully committed to the other institutions referenced above, we welcome
wholeheartedly the IGF into our global family of priority international venues.
In conclusion, once again, let me take this opportunity to stress the important role that the United
States strongly believes the IGF meets. The reality of the IGF, an open and inclusive dialogue among all
stakeholders of the international Internet community, discussing critical issues concerning the future of
the Internet, is something we all should be proud of and committed to support.
[ Applause ]
>>H.E. CHAIRMAN RAJA: Thank you, Ms. Baker. The next speaker is Mr. Paul Twomey, CEO and
president, Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers.
Please, Mr. Paul.
>>PAUL TWOMEY: Good afternoon.
Assistant Secretary Jomo, Chairman and Minister Raja, Secretary Singh, distinguished guests, and, in
particular, I'd like to single out Hamadoun Touré, my friend and Secretary-General at the ITU, who
recently was with us in Cairo and helped us with our constructive work together at our most recent
meeting, ladies and gentlemen, it's my great pleasure to be with you today at the third Internet
Governance Forum. And I'd like to thank the government of India for hosting this event and to
congratulate Nitin Desai, chair of the IGF, and Markus Kummer, executive coordinator, over their
extraordinary work over the past three years. Thank you.I also would like to express on behalf of the worldwide ICANN community our sorrow and solidarity
with the government and people of India in the aftermath of the terrible events in Mumbai. Friends of
mine lost family there, and I have some sense of the personal anguish at this time.
At this third IGF, we are both taking stock of the progress achieved in our earlier meetings and looking
forward to the challenges we face with an ever-expanding Internet. It is also an opportunity to reflect
on the shared experiences, programs, and initiatives in respective regions that have resulted from the
IGF so far.
The original themes laid out in those meetings -- access, diversity, openness, openness and security, and
critical Internet resources -- are still valid. But we have the opportunity this week to re-evaluate those
themes and weigh them against the expectations of the next billion Internet users. That is in the context
of the Internet for all.
Just ten years ago, we had 100 million users of the Internet. Today, we have 1.4 billion. And with the
rapid growth of mobile communications networks and the availability of access to the Internet on those
devices, that number is going to increase very quickly. One has only to watch the numerous ads on
Indian television -- and Indonesian television, for that matter --to see how consumers worldwide are
being presented with an image of a mobile Internet experience. And those users will demand all the
products and services the Internet community has come to expect. Everything from financial services to
health care to transportation and navigation, to education.
More importantly, they'll expect to do so in their own languages and language scripts.
These amazing innovations, which are on the new horizon, will offer a wealth of opportunities, but also
a myriad of challenges. This week's workshops will explore many of those challenges -- access,
multilingualism, cybersecurity and cybercrime, a balance between privacy and openness, and a smooth
transition from IPv4 to IPv6.
The future of the Internet is in everyone's hands, including those of us here in the IGF. The ICANN
community has taken some very important steps recently to prepare a secure, stable, and scalable
foundation for an Internet for all for the next billion users and those thereafter. Let me focus on two of
them, in particular, Internationalized Domain Names and new generic top-level domains.
ICANN's current activities involve perhaps the most pivotal development in the domain name space
since the beginning of the Internet. At its 32nd international meeting in Paris in June, the ICANN board
approved a policy process that was some three years in the making to open up the generic top-level
domain space. To further competition and choice, to further a globalizing, scalable Internet, diversity,
choice, and innovation in the TLD space are key.
You have probably heard that we have just released for public comment a Draft Applicant Guidebook
for new generic top-level domains applicants, as well as a draft implementation plan for
Internationalized Domain Name, country code top-level domains.We exhort all of you to engage with us in discussion and dialogue and reform and resolution of those
The Internet is no longer confined to western societies and developed nations. The next generation of
Internet users will come not from developed countries but from developing economies, the very
communities that Internationalized Domain Names, particularly IDN top-level domains and country code
top-level domains, can help the most. Through its multistakeholder and bottom-up process, ICANN is
developing a stable system for supporting these revolutionary changes to today's Internet.
Looking to the future, the forces fueling technology development and innovation are very strong.
Despite doubts raised by the recent financial crisis, innovation, creativity, and technology will continue
to provide the solutions to many of the major and complex challenges facing the globe. Education and
capacity development is crucial to economic advancement, and technology can be a catalyst to
As we look at the impact the Internet and related technologies can have on the future of a still
globalizing world, I think four themes are identifiable. Firstly, the expansion of global ubiquitous
networks is a fundamental driving force for innovation, both in its development and in its consumption.
Both the growth of the Internet and its increasing -- and the increasing access to the Internet through
mobile communication networks is also a transformative force for all sectors, including business and
The consequence of this growth and convergence is an enormous consumer-citizen engagement, and
devolution of decision-making throughout the globe, especially within the developing world. Secondly,
multidisciplinary approaches are essential for achieving solutions to many of the globe's complex
problems and opportunities. But such an approach is a challenge to traditional institutions and approval
of management systems. Thirdly, global multistakeholder models for dialogue, coordination, and
standard-setting are essential.
The IGF is one important aspect, contributing to enabling dialogue on a multitude of issues relating to
the Internet in a multistakeholder environment.
And fourthly, I think we're in a period of fundamental transition. And the velocity of change is
accelerating, driven, I think, largely by emerging ubiquitous connectivity.
This transition is seen by the move from planning for to planning with, from a passive model of
consumption to one of engagement, from a top-down to a more distributed and bottom-up decisionmaking model, from local to global, and from developed to more developed and developing, and,
indeed, from developing to developed.
Part of planning for the future is, of course, models for engaging on Internet issues. The IGF, while a
young entity, was established through a worldwide consultation of the WSIS process. It's proven itself
as an important approach to ensuring a multistakeholder dialogue on issues important to the Internet
space, sharing experiences and expertise. We have seen this from IGF meetings already, the emergence of national and regional IGF-related dialogues, multistakeholder engagements on Internet issues,
continued enhanced cooperation among various organizations and entities, and even programs and
projects coming out of the IGF meetings. And this only after three years.
We have a responsibility for the next generations, for the next billion users, to ensure that the issues
related to the Internet area are engaged by all stakeholders, conducted in a multistakeholder fora.
Thank you, Chairman.
[ Applause ]
>>H.E. CHAIRMAN RAJA: Thank you, Mr. Twomey.
The next speaker is Ms. Graciela Selaimen, executive coordinator, NUPEF, please, Ms. Graciela
>>GRACIELA SELAIMEN: Good afternoon, Mr. Chairman and all distinguished participants, ladies and
gentlemen. Thank you for the opportunity to be here. And also thanks to the organizers, to the
secretariat, and to the government of India, who provided us with this excellent structure and a kind
reception. I also take this opportunity to express our solidarity in face to the sad events in Mumbai last
The Internet has developed vertiginous in the last decade, mainly due to its open, interoperable,
nonhierarchical, open standards nature that has promoted the preflow of information and
communication, consolidated a culture of collaboration, and led us to new paradigms of cooperation,
knowledge-sharing, and production. The public and egalitarian nature of the Internet also fostered the
expression of a wide diversity of voices and world views in a way that has definitely challenged the
media monopolies and the cultural industry, although we know there is a long way ahead until the
human right to communicate, including through the Internet, effectively reaches all the people in the
Today, we face an ideological confrontation among two main tendencies that are manifested in the
Internet's several layers. One, aiming to deepen the free flow of information, the construction of the
commons, broadening the public space and the public domain in the use and in the development of the
Internet. The other, aiming to control, restrict the access to information and its flow, inspect and refrain
its free development in order to benefit economic processes based on the private appropriation of
knowledge and of the infrastructures on which information circulates, threatening the public and
egalitarian nature of the Internet.
In face of this, it is important to remember and to remark that, throughout history, humanity has been
able to challenge the most rigid power structures with its creativity and with the urge for freedom that is
inherent to the human spirit. This has brought us here. We are a result of human hope, solidarity, and
tenacity. We are here to discuss Internet governance structures and policies, and, in this third meeting
of the IGF, we must move forward, building upon the relevant work that has been done by this forum so
far. Let's do it taking steps towards an Internet environment based on the human rights, on inclusiveness, openness, operating for the public interest, fostering the sustainable development of
societies, while respecting local cultures and diversity. Let's move towards the radicalization of
democracy and equality in all levels of human experience and build Internet governance structures and
processes that are transparent, accountable, people-centered, open to the participation of all groups of
interest, ensuring greater democratic basis to Internet governance structures.
I'm confident that we can work together to find concrete ways to defend and to ensure rights such as
freedom of expression, privacy, universal access, access to knowledge, diversity, health, education,
participation in public life, sustainability, and equality among people, starting with the equality among
women and men, both on the Internet and outside it.
The IGF, a successful space for open dialogue, can also be a space for deliberation and participative
decision-making. In this regard, I fully agree with Dr. Jeremy Malcolm when he says that the IGF ought
to develop the capacity to more fully carry out its mandate, including the generation and
communication of policy recommendations to other institutions and the general public.
From Latin America, muchas gracias a todos y todas - que tengamos una excelente reunión del IGF.
Thank you all very much. Obrigada.
[ Applause ]
>>CHAIRMAN RAJA: Thank, Ms. Selaimen.
Next speaker is Mr. Hamadoun Touré, Secretary-General, International Telecommunication Union.
Mr. Touré, please.
>>HAMADOUN TOURÉ: Excellencies, distinguished colleagues, ladies and gentlemen. I would like to
join the previous speakers in condemning the terrorist acts that have been perpetrated in India last
week. And I present my deepest condolences on behalf of ITU to the people and government of India
for the losses of life.
I also present my condolences to the people and government of India on the passing away of former
Prime Minister V.P. Singh.
Ladies and gentlemen, I am pleased to join you here in Hyderabad for what I trust will be three days of
productive discussions aimed at defining a clear path for the IGF, and I would like to thank the
government of India for being such a gracious host.
It is worth reiterating that the IGF was created as a result of the World Summit on the Information
Society organized by the ITU, as the most wide ranging, comprehensive and inclusive debate ever held
on the future of the Information Society.
Where, for the first time, governments, private sector, and civil society worked together hand in hand,
and for the first time, civil society did not have to have its voice heard through demonstrations outside
the rooms.Through the Geneva and Tunis phases of the World Summit on the Information Society, ITU proactively
solicited contributions from stakeholders worldwide.
Intensive preparatory work for the Tunis phase of WSIS had already built significant global consensus on
the principles governing ongoing policy deliberations.
At the close of that summit, we spoke of the breakthrough agreement on Internet governance, which
acknowledged the need for enhanced global cooperation, and the need for the application of principles
of freedom of access and national sovereignty in each country's management of its ccTLD as laid down
in paragraph 35 of the Tunis Agenda for the Information Society.
We underlined the importance of strengthened cooperation in the development of globally applicable
principles for the management of critical Internet resources.
We held the agreement and the creation of the IGF in accordance with paragraph 72 of the Tunis
Agenda as a turning point that would pave the way for all countries to exercise their national rights in
managing their own critical Internet resources.
Three years later, where are we?
I'm very pleased that with some of the progress achieved by ICANN over these past three years on
critical issues, such as security and internationalization of domain name systems, and I was very pleased
to be in Cairo last week --three weeks ago on invitation of my good friend Paul Twomey, and I would
like to thank him again for that invitation.
For our part, ITU has been very active in implementing both the letter and the spirit of our WSIS
On 17 May last year, I launched the Global Cybersecurity Agenda, a global framework for international
cooperation aimed at enhancing global -- public confidence and security in the use of ICTs in the
response to the action line C5 of the WSIS that was assigned to the ITU.
Because children are increasingly vulnerable to the predations of cyber criminals, we recently enhanced
the GCA, the global cybersecurity agenda, with the launch of our new Child Online Protection Initiative,
ITU's 2008 World Telecommunication Standardization assembly adopted key recommendations on IPv6
and on nondiscriminatory access to Internet resources.
ITU council last month created a new working group dedicated to accelerating the pace of work on
Internet related public policy issues. ITU also continues to push for faster process in building
international Internet connectivity in developing countries.
Last year's ITU connect Africa summit alone raised an unprecedented $55 billion in investment
commitment, especially targeting regional connectivity projects.And in April next year, ITU's World Telecommunication Policy Forum in Lisbon will welcome over a
thousand senior policymakers for high-level discussions on four key themes, among them Internetrelated public policy matters.
Distinguished colleagues, when we met in Rio last year I spoke of the need for next generation Internet
governance, governance that reflects the changing realities of our world and the changing nature of the
And I make no apology for stating bluntly that I believe the IGF was not on track to meet the
expectations of many countries that participated in the Tunis phase of WSIS. And who were hoping for
frank and fruitful discussions and concrete solutions on globally applicable principles for the
management of critical Internet resources.
When creating the IGF, we all believed in it and it will make a difference, and I still believe so.
If we allow ourselves to get bogged down in rehashing issues for which there was already broad global
consensus in Tunis, then critics are justified in labeling our efforts a waste of time.
Last month, I was privileged to participate in the ICANN meeting in Cairo, a meeting that elicited
forthright discussions on our strengths and weaknesses.
One of the challenges in the current structure is a Governmental Advisory Committee, or GAC, that
clearly needs improvement.
Not only does this body lack any kind of policy-making muscle, but it is highly unrepresentative. Of
ITU's 191 member states, barely half have representation in GAC, and under a third are active -- have an
I continue to receive complaints on issues of great importance to ITU member states, such as the
management of ccTLDs, for the last example being for Trinidad and Tobago, which still has not been
When issues of such concerns to sovereign states cannot be addressed in a timely and satisfactory
manner, it is only natural that these countries turn to ITU for help.
Ladies and gentlemen, since the last meeting of the IGF, the world has been plunged into an economic
crisis, the magnitude of which is only just beginning to be fully appreciated.
At a top level crisis meeting in New York, head of international agencies were unanimous in their call for
global frameworks to embrace a new multilateral approach.
These leaders were unequivocal for their call for a new environment that supports, rather than
undermines, social fairness and sustainable development.
This compelling need for new, more equitable and additional frameworks are just as important when
applied to cyberspace. As we approach the expiration of the MOU between ICANN and the U.S. Department of Commerce, we should assure that the same principles of democracy, advocated by some
of the loudest voices on the Net, must also apply to the governance of this critical global resource.
I therefore urge IGF members to strengthen the will to move forward in addressing the issues for which
this forum was set up in the spirit of paragraph 72 of the Tunis Agenda.
As the international agency committed to connecting the world, ITU has a mandate to extend equitable,
affordable access to all the world's people, and we continue to address this issue here in the IGF.
This is a responsibility we take seriously. I, for one, would like to see a clear demonstration of the same
commitment from the IGF.
Today we seem to allow -- we seem to see the world as divided. I believe that we should avoid such a
IGF is a place where we can solve our differences. Today, the world is one where we seem to resolve
our differences through wars. And we know from the conventional wars that the best way to win a war
is to avoid it in the first place.
We should, through the IGF, make sure that the cyberspace is safe and peaceful one where no countries
are fighting and no individuals are fighting, and where every citizen of this planet can access freely the
Net, and safely.
Security cannot be left -- it cannot be left to only some few individuals. Security of the people should be
managed by all, including the governments. And we make sure that's while we're keeping the
cyberspace secure, we should make sure that we are preserving the freedom and privacy of our citizens.
I thank you.
[ Applause ]
>>CHAIRMAN RAJA: Thank you, Mr. Touré.
Friends, this concludes the list of speakers of the opening session of the third annual meeting of the IGF.
Before the concluding comments, the secretary wanted to give some announcements.
I leave the floor to the secretary.
>>MARKUS KUMMER: Thank you, Mr. Chairman. We have been approached by the media who are
very keen to have the text of all the speeches.
Could you kindly make the copies available to the secretariat over there so he can make them available
to the media.
>>CHAIRMAN RAJA: Thank you, Secretary.Friends, we are about to close the session.
I do hope the deliberations held here are fruitful.
We share the regional and corporate experiences between us.
The role of the policymakers, academicians and the common people in the technology revolution,
including the Internet arena, are being -- are discussed.
As we all know, science and technology must be utilized for the betterment of the society.
The Internet is no exception to this natural formula.
As such, we are committed here to ensure the accessibility and affordability of the Internet to the
At the same time,we are deeply concerned about the cybersecurity, coupled with the protection of
data, needs some sort of convergence since the technological revolution will not stop itself within the
territorial limits of your particular country.
As one of the speaker'sstated here, any technology, including the Internet, cannot be addressed in
terms of develop countries or developed countries. It will also be interpreted and discussed in terms of
And so we discussed all these things here, and hope the deliberation held here will pave the way, good
way for the future revolution of Internet arena.
With these comments, I declare that this session is concluded.
[ Applause ]