Host Country-Led Activities (High Level Meeting)
05 December 2016 - A Host Country Session on in Guadalajara,Mexico
>> Good afternoon to all. We'll begin with the High Level Meeting that will consist of a debate of all interested parties in which the participants will intervene in alphabetical order. It will be moderated by Victor Lagunes, Director General of IT of Information Technologies of the presidency.
>> VICTOR LAGUNES: Good afternoon.
Welcome to Day 0 of the IGF. We're very proud to have you here. We have had a very productive morning with several presentations from the Chair of the multistakeholder party Chair from the President of ISOC, the governor of the State of Jalisco among others.
Mexico is still quite strong in its position of supporting the scheme of Internet Governance. We believe in a multistakeholder environment in order to promote and potentialize the Internet. This is why last December we supported the IGF mandate renewal and not only do we reiterate this support but here we are today.
I now pass the floor to a member of the Department of The United Nations office, Lenni Montiel.
>> LENNI MONTIEL: It is an honor to join you in this beautiful City of Jalisco, State of Zapopan, Guadalajara, Mexico.
On behalf of the United Nations I thank the Government of Mexico, particularly Victor Lagunes, chief information officer at the Office of the President for making this gathering possible and for your commitment and leadership in hosting the 11th Session of the Internet Governance Forum. The strong commitment of the Mexican government to the IGF is remarkable. It was in early 2015 that the government announced the pledge to host this IGF in advance of the renewal of the mandate of the IGF last year at the General Assembly's review of the WSIS+10.
This commitment is apparent demonstrating Mexico's leadership in the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. As you know, the 2030 Agenda is anchored in 17 universal Sustainable Development Goals and 169 interconnected targets providing critical reference points for government, civil society, the private sector and all relevant stakeholders. One calls for significant increase in access information, technologies, providing universal, affordable access to the Internet in the least‑developed countries by 2020. This is an ambitious, achievable goal. The profile for the Internet and innovation of ICTs is highlighted in the technology facilitation mechanism, a major outcome of the action Agenda Item and the 2030 Agenda. Clearly the Internet penetrated in all corners of the globe. For us here, and many others in technologies it is a part of our everyday life, we must not forget that many people continue to live in the margin of society, some in rural areas, urban slums and lack access to infrastructure, resources and information. We must not forget that many forms of digital divides remains between and within countries and between women and men. It is a concern that such digital divides may be widened with the advancement and diffusion of the Internet.
In addition to supporting the U.N. Secretary‑General in convening the annual IGF meetings, the U.N. Department of Economic and Social Affairs supports the U.N. high level political Forum which reviews the implementation of the Agenda 2030 and its SDG and the U.N. technology facility mechanism. We support the work of the U.N. along with ITU, UNESCO and others in implementing the outcomes of the World Summit on Information Society. Working as one the U.N. will continue to do more to foster social inclusion, including be through the Internet and ICTs.
I would like to highlight that this is the 11th IGF and the 10th convened by the Secretary‑General Ban Ki‑moon who, as you know, is finishing his mandate at the end of this year. The Secretary‑General Antonio Guterres will take office as of the 1st of January 2017 and will continue to have the IGF as per the mandate. Distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen, let us find ways for social inclusion to bring about the power of access and knowledge to those in need. Let us work together to leverage on the Internet to empower Sustainable Development to leave no one behind.
>> VICTOR LAGUNES: Thank you.
I would like to thank everyone for their presence and ‑‑ around the table here. I'm going to pose two questions. Each at the table will have the opportunity to speak between 3 to 5 minutes. I ask you to be brief with your answers in respect to our audience.
My first question has to do with a multistakeholder dialogue focused opportunity, the opportunities that offers the MAG for Internet Governance in matters of inclusion and digital abilities for the future emphasizing the necessary abilities in this environment for the Internet and associations and several aspects, including the economic one.
What advantages does the Multistakeholder Advisory Group have in matter of inclusion, including different elements to close the gap digital wise.
I would like to ask Mr. Ambassador from China Qiu Xiaoqi to present his answer.
>> QUI XIAOQI: It seems the problem with the translation is not resolved and I would like to wait for a moment until it is resolved.
Maybe you can ask somebody else to answer this. We're sorry for the inconvenience.
>> VICTOR LAGUNES: I pass the floor to ‑‑ would the Secretary like to give his answer?
>> MALCOLM JOHNSON: ITU is the specialized U.N. Agency for Telecommunications and Information Communication Technology. One of our main objectives is to bring the benefits of ICTs to all peoples regardless of location, gender, age, income.
According to ITU's latest statistics, 40% of the world's population is using the Internet. That leaves many that are not. If we look at the case of the Least Developed Countries it is a sad story. There are various others digital divides that are becoming apparent, for example the gender divide as was mentioned. It is estimated that there are 200 million less women than men connected. Also Persons with Disabilities, many are not able to take the benefit of the ICTs, it is a chronic lack of digital skills in many countries and a lack of affordable solutions, especially the developing countries. A world where everyone is connected to the Internet is clearly going to be a better place, a better place to be informed, to be educated, to be productive and have healthcare and enjoy a better standard of living.
To really benefit from all of the innovative products and services available on the Internet, it requires access to high‑speed broadband. This the issue that ITU is continuing to bring to the attention of our governments, government members, 193 government members of ITU. We need to continually highlight the importance of access to broadband and to make sure that networks are ran out in countries which is quite a challenge especially for the developing countries where the majority of the population is living in rural areas. We have to work with all stakeholders, especially the private sector, we have to encourage their investment. That's important. Three keywords are collaboration, cooperation, coordination between all stakeholders. This is why the multistakeholder model is so important. ITU has a wide membership, governments, private sector, and non‑governmental organizations and recently academia. We clearly need to work with many other organizations and entities that are not members of ITU. We're looking forward to doing that and we believe that events like the Internet Governance, like the WSIS Forum which we ran in Geneva each year, they're very important to bring all the multistakeholders together and to agree to work together to provide duplication of effort to pull resources to work towards the common good. We're very pleased here having this discussion with you today.
Thank you very much.
>> VICTOR LAGUNES: Thank you Malcolm Johnson.
I now pass to you.
>> JARI ARKKO: To start with, I wanted to say that I'm pleased to be here in Mexico and in this conference, the topic today and many other topics in the week are important for the Internet. I want to respond to the multistakeholder question from inside by providing a perspective on the engineering taskforce, the ITF, we want to improve the HTPT. I want to begin by saying how important inclusiveness is for our work.
If you let few or few drivers go with the discussion, you won't get the full picture. We dip in critically on this multistakeholder model to get the views of those that build applications, the views of the network operators, views from those that worry about the privacy of the end user, government views, regulatories are involved, so on. The biggest value we get in our work is from these discussions between different types of people. Our model in how we achieve this, it is special, and I feel it has worked well for us. The basic idea is to have low barrier for participation. All you need is an e‑mail address and a good idea or feedback. Everybody who is interested on a topic is welcome and discussions are held together. We try to draw people to the meetings and for that we run a Fellows program but the primary work is online. The cost of participation, it is low.
It is an interesting contrast to many others that are structured around other participants, government, Civil Society, business. In ITF people represent themselves and ideas, not in a particular sector. I'm proud of the results, we come from 76 different countries, from many different backgrounds and for the tech industry at least our organization has good distribution in our leadership groups and so on. I don't want to give a view that there are no challenges, we try to draw in a broader set of people and it is hard work.
A difficulty is that for any given topic the participants need a reason to participate and they need knowledge to engage in the discussion productively. Where there is a lot of industry academia or government experts it is easy to find the participants, but harder elsewhere.
>> VICTOR LAGUNES: Thank you. Dorothy Attwood.
>> DOROTHY ATTWOOD: The global public policy for the Walt Disney Company. To answer your question directly, the multistakeholder model is essential to foster Internet growth and to maximize inclusion while preserving diversity. I would like to direct comments to the role of conduct with inclusion diversity and how the multistakeholder model is an enabler. Walt Disney saw storytelling and entertainment as vital elements to building social cohesion. He once said, We have created characters and animated them in the dimension of depth, revealing through them to our world that the things we have in common far outnumber and outweigh those that divide us.
As far back as 2011 UNESCO, ISOC and the OECD looked at the relationship between the availability of locally relevant contact, infrastructure development and prices for access. Unsurprisingly it showed a strong correlation between them. They created a virtuous cycle where more of one stimulates the other, and all work to bridge the divide. Increased locally relevant content drives adoption which drives investment in infrastructure which improves access prices, further providing incentives for greater content creation. The benefits of the virtuous cycle is maximized with a broad view and encourages all kinds of content meaningful to the user's life.
A vibrant online content creation market brings benefits not only for local users, but it can create a spring board for content creators to gain accesses to audiences around the globe allowing them to invest in even more content and drive job growth in the creative sector. This week's participants in the IGF will hear from an entrepreneur from Ghana, for example, who has developed a show called an African city which has found an audience through successful licensing arrangements with distributors in and out of Africa she's been able to create two seasons of her series doubling her production budget for the second season. At Disney we too seek to find stories and storytellers wherever they are. While of course we release blockbuster movies like Zootopia and Star Wars and others we know to be successful we have to provide content which is locally relevant and contextualized to the local market. Being here in Mexico, I'll just comment briefly on an investment we made recently in local sports content, for example. We have a state‑of‑the‑art production facility in Mexico City that produces the Mexican addition of sports edition, ESPN's flagship sports news and its ‑‑ it has become a world class facility for us for all over Mexico and Latin America. Digging a little deeper, given the importance of locally relevant content to drive inclusion, diversity, Internet growth we believe that there are three main drivers that create an enabling environment, first an environment suppose of free expression is critical whether we're talking about creative expression or political speech. Second, a strong, trusted eCommerce infrastructure with privacy protections, consumer protections and payment platforms, it is crucial. Also, protecting Intellectual Property, it will promote the development of business models and protect consumers allowing content creators to create sustainable businesses. Finally, improving access to finance, credit, business support services for our emerging artists, it is important to promote a robust content creation industry. Most importantly is the solutions needs multistakeholder cooperation from national governments, NGOs and private sector entities along the value chain. If we work to enable the world storytellers through multistakeholder driven solution I believe we'll see the dividends of inclusion, diversity and other Internet growth increased. Thank you.
>> VICTOR LAGUNES: Thank you very much.
In terms of our Agenda, I have clarification, I would like to give the floor to the Ambassador from China, Qiu Xiaoqi.
>> QIU XIAOQI: Dear colleagues, we would like to congratulate all of you for the successful IGF that we will all have. I would like to thank the Mexican government and the IGF Secretariat for all of the efforts made and from gracious kindness in the organization of the Forum. We live in a digital and unprecedented era, ITCs develop nonstop and they integrate nonstop, and they integrate in the real world. Internet provides a new space for our daily lives and the way we work. It also offers a platform for cultural exchanges and economic exchanges. We're facing new threats and challenges among which I would like to highlight the development of the cyberspace, a lack of standards and order and we see the digital divide extending between the north and the South and it happens that the crime that takes place in the Internet violations of intellectual rights and property rights as well. We see several attacks on the Internet and terrorisms have become ‑‑ have become global calamities. Therefore, this has been an area of discussion for all of us. Dear colleagues, as an outcome of WSIS this Forum has had 10 additions, now this is a new landmark in our journey, the IGF in the next ten years must perform its outstanding role together with the wisdom of all stakeholders to build together a governance system on the Internet that is democratic and transparent. Therefore, I would like to propose to you three things: First one, to insist on the equal importance on continuously innovating. I would like to stand out that Internet development cannot change the international world order specified by the U.N. sovereignty, non‑interference in domestic appearance, non‑use of armed forces and dispute settlement mechanism. This is what we should also see in the cyberspace.
We also have to continue ‑‑ to continue having innovation in our practices. We want to have lasting peace in the Internet environment and continue developing in a framework of security. Security ensures development and we have to continue with our level of development by using the Internet to fill the digital gap and we have to keep on helping developing countries with aid and we have to turn our eyes to security issues. By this we'll be able to have a robust and sound development in a digital economy. We cannot afford to compromise security for a market economy. We have to insist on the common space of human interaction and the cyberspace stakeholders are diverse. We must insist in a multilateralism approach, Internet should not be a space enjoyed by a few. We have to enhance the participation of all governments, companies, social organizations, international organizations among other stakeholders.
Dear colleagues, China has 700 million Internet users, 870 million ‑‑ mobile Internet users. The Internet is part of our social and economic life in China.
Currently the Chinese government is aiming for an Internet development strategy and big data strategy in China, as well as having possibility of having Internet Plus. We are creating a digital China not only for our benefit, but for the world's benefit. In the last few years China has made major contributions to develop its digital committee in the G20 by creating digital route between China and Asia to share the opportunities that Internet offers with all Asian countries. We're willing to work and have more dialogue and cooperation and to have long‑lasting security in the cyberspace.
Finally, I wish you the best for the Forum.
>> VICTOR LAGUNES: Thank you very much.
I would like to give the floor to Philip Behn.
>> PHILIP BEHN: Thank you, Victor. Thank you for inviting us to this conference and High Level Meeting.
We are ‑‑ we have been following and admiring the efforts by the Mexican government and also by the state Government of Jalisco to bring the Internet to Mexicans. As a retailer whose mission is to help customers save money so that they can live better, WalMart is deeply committed to the goals of this organization ‑‑ (technical issue) ‑‑ environment of trust and protection of privacy and customer rights.
Thirdly, we believe in establishing a culture of innovation. We have heard a couple of examples this morning of both federal and state government efforts to foster that. We strongly believe that the Internet can be unlocked through a culture of innovation which starts at the very basic educational level and goes all the way through the workforce.
We're committed to a diverse, free and open Internet which can be used for good. We believe that eCommerce is one of the areas where the Internet can truly contribute to a country's developing goals.
>> VICTOR LAGUNES: Thank you very much, Philip.
I would like to give the floor to Itzcoati Tonatiuh Bravo. We're grateful for your help in the organization of this event.
>> ITZCOATI TONATIUH BRAVO: Thank you very much.
Welcome. All of us that live in this city and State I would like to say welcome to all of you.
Universities play a very important role in terms of what Internet can provide. Some of you have made reference to what Internet offers in your remarks. The most classical definition made by a University to train technicians, graduates at an undergraduate level in the whole range of programs that entail the development of digital skills. The expansion of networks, software development, hardware development and what is needed for Internet to work.
It's the role of universities as well to work towards all kinds of research, not only ITC‑related research, but also to carry out research in the social arena. I should say that a dictatorial thesis from a graduate from University of Guadalajara showed how the Internet was widely used in Indigenous communities in the northern part of the State and the United States. This was to communicate between migrants. We know that the biggest gaps that we see in the Internet is in this social group. There are other aspects in which universities participate, and due to the digital strategy launched by the Mexican government universities have been able to participate in the program Mexico Connect. It offers the possibility to incorporate a joint effort made by public universities in the country with the purpose in mind to generate new areas to provide Internet connectivity. We must bear in mind, in this experience we enabled more than 100,000 new sites that offer Internet connections. It is very important for us to add efforts, and this is what I would like to share with you:
We need to strengthen connectivity in every university campus. We need to have a robust, stable broadband in which we can use the network for research purposes and educational purposes and the Internet to train professionals and equip them with all of the skills with all the technological knowledge that they need for the Internet. In the morning we heard about eCommerce and the Internet used for entertainment purposes. This is universal in the field of health and in the field of education, but every single field practically uses the Internet. Therefore, I would like to share with you two points: First of all, we universities can provide the possibility of opening up spaces for connectivity in order to extend Internet availability and reduce the digital divide. On the other hand, we can train in the classrooms students, but we can take that knowledge to other places, not necessarily a university classroom.
Additionally, which in my opinion is an essential topic, we can develop new skills and be innovative in the way we use Internet. The Internet is a free space. It is an independent space in by the world is interconnected. In this sense, innovation can be the main feature of the Internet globally.
Thank you very much.
>> VICTOR LAGUNES: Thank you very much.
Now we will hear from Kathy Brown.
>> KATHY BROWN: Thank you, Victor.
Thank you, once again for having the Internet Society as such a crucial part of today's conversation. I ‑‑ we thank you for again ‑‑ for your hospitality, again, frankly, for this gathering. I'm quite pleased to see this multistakeholder panel as large as it is to be the focus of this day where the government itself in hosting realizing that the questions need to be addressed by a diversity of parties. We're well on our way after 10 years, I think, of how we might want to address these important questions.
As we talked about this morning, we are in a moment in time in the Internet where we are faced with complex issues that require careful, cautious, urgent results and solutions. In order for us to foresee in a way that is ‑‑ that parallels the architecture of the Internet that is its openness, its transparency, its transnational nature, its non‑centralized properties we need to have decision making processes that can ‑‑ that are parallel to the very complex issues that we face. Those are distributed, those are local, those are national, those are international. In order to arrive at good decision making it seems to us we have to put some meat on the bones of what we mean in real life for multistakeholder processes. It seems to me that it is now the time for us to reform many of the ways that we have done things because we have done them all along, to think through how we go beyond consultation on a particular issue and move to consensus participation.
A couple of thoughts: We need to address issues where they arise. If the issue has to do with how do parents think their children should use the Internet in the classroom, it seems to me that's a very local issue with stakeholders that are quite clear: The children, the parents, administrators, communities, teachers. They have quite the ability to sort through these things. When they're on the national level and we're sorting through commercial issues, we know we need the companies involved, we need the customers involved, we need users, sometimes we need government ‑‑ not always. There may be times we do for normative‑type issues we have to solve. Certainly internationally I respect the statement of the Ambassador from China that there are deep complex and we have mutual concerns about how the issues are decided across border. This will require exercises in how sovereign nation states come together to deal with a transnational phenomenon which all of the world's people can use.
I think that we are at a stage where we actually need to think through how the process works and to think through reform because in order to actually deal with some of the issues that we know are effecting had the trust, safety, security of the Internet, and indeed its ability to be available to all the people of the world, it will take that kind of effort.
Thank you so much, Victor.
>> VICTOR LAGUNES: Thank you very much.
Please, you are recognized.
>> Thank you very much, Victor.
I apologize first as there was a delay in the airspace. I would like to welcome all of the ministers present here, academics, members of the media. I would like to acknowledge the organizers of the Internet Governance Forum. I would like to acknowledge all participants and I would like to thank you for this opportunity to share different views and approaches about the Internet and I'm grateful to be a part of this conversation. It is an honor to share a couple of ideas.
Basically on the multistakeholder model and the different world efforts that have taken place in the area of inclusion, I would like to say, again, that the Internet is a tool, that what it does, it is to exercise basic rights for citizens like the right to information, the right to privacy, the right to ITCs, the right to broadcasting services. That's why our main ‑‑ our Constitution, it does not acknowledge the right of technology, but it paves the way for development, knowledge. It serves as a window for a more democratic space. Internet could become a mechanism, it could become a tool so that societies become more inclusive.
Mexico in its national development plan has set forth in the Constitution, the plan. It is aimed to grow sustainably, equitable society with social cohesion, and Inclusive Mexico will require redirecting efforts to make sure that social rights are accessible to fill the gaps in terms of inequality that historically we have seen in this country. And in order to fulfill this goal ITCs play a crucial role, as I have mentioned, paving the way towards development.
Mexican government uses ITCs and ITCs are core components of the federal and local administration in Mexico by expediting processes, ITCs, they're used to have more transparency in public administration practices, ITCs are used to improve government services and to eliminate corruption, but we also want to have a society that exercises its democratic rights.
I would like to wrap up by saying that we want to have citizens that demand from their governments through technology.
Thank you very much.
>> VICTOR LAGUNES: Thank you very much.
Mishi Choudhary will take the floor.
>> MISHI CHOUDHARY: Thank you for having me here.
The premise of this conversation is that Internet is a media of inclusion and education. I'm glad such is the premise. It used to be true, and one value in the multistakeholder model is that it’s ‑‑ that it being valid make this happen. This is no happy accident. It is the nature of the Internet and the participants that have built it. It started with the free, open source movement in the 20th Century and what that did was make participation in software making and services by allowing everybody to copy, modify, share possible for anyone interested.
The Internet allows everybody to participate because protocols are open. They're adopted by consensus and everybody can implement them. This is crucial in the same way that open participation in science is crucial. Everybody is there because we learned in the 20th Century that maximum participation makes better social policy. The possibility of this broad participation is the real economic and social promise. When we talk about the net what we're always referring to are the open participatory mechanisms and cooperation through methods pioneered by the sharing economy. We should have the propositions of openness, transparency, participation, I'm surprised by freedom and liberty are not featured in the discussions as much as a multistakeholder does. Having recognized that, at present the net is well along in the transformation in a behavioral collection system. Many see the futures secured by collecting, monetarizing and deploying actions based on the behavior collection they engage in or obtain the results of through brute force or power.
This is the net that we do not want. The real value of the multistakeholder model is that it keeps the doors of this room open so that we can come here and talk about when the premise itself has shifted, the center of gravity has moved from the possibility of educating every brain on earth into a behavior collector. Now it is all about what comes back by way of stream, behavior information and location data, preference data and profiling and the value that the net provides to people education, economic opportunity, cultural exchange is all involved.
>> Their deep anxiety on the worldwide web is currently taking, the violations of Snowden, what the web has been used by the governments, and the realization that a fun companies have become ‑‑ that a few companies are gate keepers to the rights. This is a value of the multistakeholder model that I can sit here and talk about this.
The net's default model was supposed to be openness and decentralization as allows diverse voices, voices like ours that are from the global South, north, wherever. They are not in this room but can use the platforms like Facebook and Twitter for their voices to be heard before the waters tell you what the tide is. This is the idea that human beings are connected through this medium and also exchange and bring the promise of the net.
>> VICTOR LAGUNES: Thank you very much.
>> STEVE CROCKER: Thank you very much. Pleased to be here at the IGF meeting and at this High-Level Meeting in particular. I say a special thank you to the Government of Mexico to invite me to participate in this session, it is a pleasure to participate with this distinguished group of officials, leaders and Internet Governance experts.
It is exciting that the IGF is now entering its second decade in improving itself as a robust platform for the Internet Governance die loss. We wouldn't be here if ‑‑ dialogue and it would not ‑‑ and we would not be here without those further striving to improve the IGF.
ICANN is consistently a strong supporter since its inception and has increased the support over the years. We have viewed the IGF as a positive example of an effective platform for stimulating constructive dialogue across the global, multistakeholder community. From the very beginning the Internet was based on a set of open standards which were developed through open and collaborative processes. Open standards are key to maintaining one single internet allowing all to communicate. This is vital to the integrity and to foster innovation and creative allowing economies and societies to take advantage of the opportunities offered. The policy making part of the Internet has also evolved on the principle of openness allowing those that are interested in and/or effected by such policies to take part in the development process. Internet technical bodies such as the ITF, regional Internet registries and ICANN have embraced the process driven by community in an open, bottom‑up manner. 10 years ago when the IGF was making early steps we had slightly more than 1 billion users connected to the Internet which we thought was a large number. Today we have around 3.6 billion users. This is spectacular growth but yet there are around 4 billion more who are still offline. Clearly connectivity of the unconnected is a main challenge that the global community is faced with today.
The challenge here is a multilevel one, barriers to a single end‑point server are diverse from lack ‑‑ barriers are diverse and a lack of relevant content and lack of trust in some developed countries. There are numerous initiatives by many actors around the world from governments, industry, technical communities to overcome the barriers. One challenge that ICANN has been dealing with is making the Internet domain names available in various scripts. This is of course a very small portion of the very large set of issues, but it is the one that we focus on at ICANN. The domain names were only in the Latin‑based characters and now there are top level domains available in the scripts of 35 languages such as Chinese and others, just to name a few. Making new top level domains usable in all enter Internet users requires a great deal of work underway for some time and it is known as universal acceptance. Universal acceptance is the foundational requirement for a truly multi‑lingual Internet.
Forums like the IGF play a role to bring altogether to facilitate the discussions around these matters. I would like to applaud the IGF for its continuing intersessional work on the theme Policy Options for Connecting and Enabling the Next Billion and I look forward to discussion on the phase 2 report later in the week. As we get more people and more things online challenges will not go away with trends like the Internet of Things. The Internet will be more complex and have more security threats. Recently videos were used in an attack against a major infrastructure provider Dyne. Unfortunately, we expect more attacks going forward.
At ICANN we are busy for the last two and a half years working on proposals to transfer the stewardship role with the unique identifiers to the global community and as many of you know, on October 1st the contract between ICANN and the U.S. Department of Telecommunication and Information Administration to perform the functions expired. The expiration of this contract marks the transition of the coordination and management of the unique identifiers to the global stakeholder community. It was tireless work of the global community that made it a reality. The stewardship transmission is a validation of the Internet Governance showing that an Internet Governance defined by inclusion of all voices including businesses, technical experts, Civil Society, governments, many others, it is the best way to assure that the Internet of tomorrow is as free, open, accessible as the Internet is today.
More work is currently underway to continue to enhance the accountability mechanisms throughout the phase which we call work stream 2, the focus is on improving transparency diversity and looking at aspects of jurisdiction and Human Rights in relationship to ICANN's mission. It is very important that people still stay involved in this work and I would emphasize the importance of Forums like this to bring everyone around the table to engage in an open dialogue around key issues may impact the future of the Internet and it may be difficult to predict the future of the Internet and it will evolve in ways we cannot currently foresee but one thing that's certain, it will continue to connect more people and to be more embedded in our lives than ever before.
Thank you again for the opportunity. I hope we all have a very productive week.
>> VICTOR LAGUNES: Thank you.
I would like to pass the floor to Siyabonga Cwele.
>> SIYABONGA CWELE: Let me thank the government and the people of this beautiful country for receiving us.
I come from the most southern tip of Africa, South Africa. As a developing country, we take the Internet as the most important global resource which can help all of us in developed countries to leapfrog in development. We support the multistakeholder governance with the multilateral governance of the Internet. Briefly, what is ‑‑ we're contributing quite a lot to the 3.9 who are unconnected as Mr. Johnson has put. The reason, simple, we have predominantly rule communities which are not connected. Our levels of educations are still relatively low, low incomes and the majority of the people also are still unconnected in our world, it is our women. The main barriers we see with the multistakeholder, where they can assist, the majority of our citizens, they're still not aware of the actual benefits of the Internet. The issue of public education and skill development becomes quite important. The importance of the relevant content, it must be relevant in solving their own problems but also the language because few of our citizens are speaking these languages like English. They have their own languages which are permanent in our society. The issue of confidence, security and the use of Internet, we still face quite a lot of challenges in terms of access in all respects of access, the cost of the devices are very inhibited and they're keeping a lot of our citizens from accessing the Internet. More critically, we still are faced with the issues of power. The connectivity in terms of electricity to power the devices is challenging although they're improving and investing a lot of this in line with Agenda 2063 of the African Union.
How do we see the role of the multistakeholder participation, we see it as a private/public partnership? Firstly, to look at the skills of the development with the uptake of the Internet will be helpful. Secondly, development of relevant applications so that we can solve local problems. If we solve local problems, more of our people will take the Internet because Internet is a big economy. Thirdly, production, local production of affordable devices. Just lastly, as a government, we see Internet as a basic right. That's why most of our municipalities, they're giving this as a basic package, a free package, a method of access, giving a basic access of free or basic wi‑fi. Those are some things we think we should continue to collaborate as multistakeholders, particularly private sector, academia, governments, so that we can solve some of these challenges and also leapfrog to development together as a nation.
>> VICTOR LAGUNES: Thank you. Hossam El Gamal.
>> H. EL GAMAL: Excellencies, my colleagues, I'm Hossam El Gama. I have been appointed a year ago as Chairman of the Decision Support Center in the Egyptian Cabinet.
Prior to that, I was an SME owner. I was presenting the private business community in Africa and internationally as a leader in the ICT basis. I was nominated in the MAG as a MAG member for three years. I have to share the fact that it was a great journey exchanging knowledge, experience, Best Practices and preparing best suitable policies to secure Sustainable Development through Internet enablement and governance. I would like to echo what my colleague from South Africa just said, many of what he said I exactly support. In fact, last year IGF efforts were recognized and appreciated by the U.N. General Assembly and a new 10‑year mandate was approved. Our challenge is to secure inclusive development, results serving Sustainable Development Goals and having clear measurements. Developing countries have been investing in access and are encouraged to do so, but we need to move from output based to outcome based. As we don't have the option to do otherwise to achieve required sustainable growth we need to establish standards for measurement for Internet in education, in health, in commerce, in SME growth, in gender balance, in inclusiveness in each of our countries. We suggest more to be done to ensure exchange ever localized Best Practices between developing countries. We suggest more support and focus on International Policies related to cybersecurity. We also believe multistakeholder cooperation is required to support more local content delivery serving cultural enrichment and language preservation. Further engagement is appreciated to support a healthy ecosystem for local SMEs and for Internet industry enabling job creation, SMEs empowerment, export growth, inclusiveness and government organizations.
Finally, I want to thank the Government of Mexico and our colleague ‑‑ my colleagues from the MAG for the extremely tremendous effort that's been asserted, and I wish you to be very successful.
>> VICTOR LAGUNES: Thank you, Hossam El Gamal.
Now Hasanul Haq Inu.
>> HASANUL HAQ INU: Thank you so much.
Good afternoon to all.
I am very pleased to be a part of this panel. With so many experts there's a lot of diversity of points of view here, and this first question was about the relevance of this multistakeholder model in order to deal with the topics and challenges that the Internet poses. I would begin with the reflection of when we deal with topics of the Internet we think about a variety of matters depending on our experiences and some of us think about competition, some think about investment, some about coverage, inclusion, innovation, right to information, access, privacy, security. It is such a diverse matter that we have to focus on when it comes to the Internet ecosystem. This generates very big challenges in order to achieve, to carry out those actions that could achieve a better balance between these objectives. Indeed we have to speak of commitment between the diversity of objectives because many times when we take actions that give privilege to one, we are casting some other element aside. The diversity that these types of fora offer, it is to be able to share points of views and preoccupation in order to not set anything aside.
As well as we also need to take care of the balance between the tools that we have at hand from different types of platforms whether they're the traditional regulating instruments up to the schemes that come from Civil Society and taking advantage of the Internet's capacity to generate collaboration with and from our citizens and that will allow for us to take care of that balance with the collaboration ‑‑ between offer and demand because we need to take in account all of the cases regarding matters of inclusion, especially regarding marginalized society. We have to take advantage of the opportunity that the Internet is giving us to incorporate groups that have been marginalized from development and economic opportunities and for this, we need to take action, decisive action. We need to take action so that the Internet will become this tool to reduce the differences and it distances among us and a sheer we have the purpose of this multistakeholder meeting. This is the most powerful promise that we have in order to achieve these goals.
>> VICTOR LAGUNES: Thank you.
I now pass the floor.
>> HASANUL HAQ INU: Thank you very much.
Honorable Chair, distinguished guests, Excellencies, ladies and gentlemen, let me greet you on behalf of 160 million people of Bangladesh and where Bangladesh at the moment is ranked third in IT and IT services, out sourcing globally out of a proposition of 160 million we have our ‑‑ over 133 million mobile users, over 54 million net users, 99% of the land has a coverage of data connectivity. Over 5,000 service access points in the villages, over 40 million base book users, every 20 second a new user is added. Bangladesh has already overtaken India and Pakistan in terms of net usage. Still we are far behind, but it is possible because of the digital leadership of our Prime Minister who is Chairing a national body with the body of multistakeholderism to take decisions. We are successful so far because we are looking for the humanized development and connecting citizens and third, digital government for poor services and ICT for business.
Having said that, let me draw your attention to six major problems rocking the world, environment and climate change, information and technology, terrorism, poverty, gender disparity, the Sustainable Development Goals to be finished by the year 2030.
Ladies and gentlemen, we must need to address the 6 major issues on our way to have an inclusive Sustainable Development growth through Internet Governance. Here no doubt everybody will agree that the Internet and Internet economy do enhance Sustainable Development. ICTs are key enablers of the development across the pillars of Sustainable Developments. But the question is, is the Internet economy sustainable, for announcing SDGs we need the Internet and need to build an Information Society, with a challenge that's led to the next billion and the last billion will have to be tackled. There isn't a limit, digital economy so far is developing without the proper digital infrastructure, with proper regulatory regimes, a glass house is in the making by Internet while it is threatened by cyber criminals. We have to secure the glass house, otherwise the glass house will be compromised. Concentration of global Internet shall eCommerce, it is a threat to the global South. It needs to have a fair, equitable and distribution of the tax revenues around the world.
Also, digital marketplace globally is expanding but without regulatory framework, that supports innovative sustainable growth with an aim to harmonize national regulation versus global business objectives, cross‑border trade, keeping the net affordable in all markets.
Having said that, I think to go for an inclusive, Sustainable Development we need to have a sustainable Internet and Internet economy and for that multistakeholderism is a necessity. I put forward 10 proposals for your consideration to develop a Sustainable Development and Internet the economy, number one, affordable Internet, accessible Internet, I don't explain because everybody knows that, safe Internet, the reliability of the hardware, software, privacy, data protection, international laws for cyberspace to make the Internet an instrument of peace and development and not an instrument of terror. Ensuring a human ‑‑ universal Human Rights for all in the Internet and keeping the world free from cyber phobia.
Number four, adoption of enabling laws to remove Internet application roadblocks at national and international levels.
Five, removing any democracy deficit in the governance of Internet, we should promote net neutrality, multistakeholderism, regime and expediting the process, et cetera.
Six, capacity building of institutions.
Seven, ICT, electricity.
Content development in mother tongue, digital economy, Internet should be treated as a basic Human Rights and a Constitution right.
Having said that, let me conclude by saying that in the past days whatever may have been the source of power now in this age of ICT power flows from the click of a mouse with a fingertip. We must click with caution. The famous American journalist, he had said that the idea is great but there has to be a bone and politics is a bow of idolism and politics. It’s our time to shoot, time with the arrows, we thought Internet bows, based on the multistakeholderism we must keep our struggle on to ensure Internet as a basic need for Human Rights. We must move on to make it accessible for all because the Internet system, it cannot be a positive factor for growth.
>> VICTOR LAGUNES: Can I ask you to conclude, please?
>> HASANUL HAQ INU: Therefore, I conclude by saying that at the moment we need a cyber treaty and a cybersecurity and a democratic governance of Internet based on multistakeholderism.
Thank you very much.
>> VICTOR LAGUNES: Thank you.
Now we have ‑‑ for this session, we have only three hours to answer these two questions. This was marked in the protocol. The translators, they're here ‑‑ the interpreters are here only for that time. I would like to ask you to please be very careful with the time that you take to make your points.
The next question I hope that everyone will give a shorter answer. I think all of us took too much time to do this the first time around. I hope we can be a bit briefer with the next answers.
>> IDA HOIZ: Good afternoon.
I'm happy to be here in Mexico, a country in which I lived for over a decade. I will be very brief, I promise.
Seeking the answers to this question that I found on the influence of the diverse interests of participation I found that indeed it is very good to have a variety of interests participate significantly in these discussions. We get better results to global questions in this way.
Without a doubt, this is true, but what kind of experts are we summoning and how much can they influence on national decision making regarding policies in a varied world? Internet is without a doubt a means of communication and globalization. I cannot imagine how much this technology could change humanity. I couldn't have imagined before how much development we would have gotten through at this point. Living in an interconnected world, and we need to include all members of society.
I ask myself if we are approaching all areas of life and society besides those who have already been mentioned in this Forum and if there is a Pos built to have ‑‑ possibility to have influence in all of the areas regarding international Civil Society.
In these elements, I include the aid in the study and proposal of diversity and topics that affect society but we still cannot find its correct application in all areas of knowledge because there is no clear awareness of the need for change at a high level in our countries, in many of our countries. Some examples are, for example, in my small country, Uruguay, it is a very small country in Latin America, leader, in the development of digital government, aware of the need for change. We have yet to achieve the implementation of certain social character laws that have to do with technological development, and we haven't progressed either when it comes to the employment laws and the employment environment which is so important to adapt to this new era. We have yet to adapt education to these new times in spite of a new plan carried out, which is a project that hands out computers to all children of public education. These computers they can take home which is an element which has constituted a very important part in ‑‑ regarding digital inclusion because children in public schools are not the most favored economically speaking. We have included the people of these families with economic difficulties in such a way that it's excessive regarding Internet access has been the ‑‑ the gap has been closed.
I don't have any answers. I do know that we need to go deeper in the matters through these Multistakeholder Advisory Groups in order to have clearer ideas and to progress in closing the gaps that exist today in our different societies when it comes to social, legal, employment matter.
>> VICTOR LAGUNES: Thank you. Vint Cerf, Vice President of Google, of Internet access in Google.
>> VINT CERF: I will try to draw to your attention the reason why I come to the Internet Governance Forum. I'm an engineer. I love problems. I like to solve problems. There are lots of them that come to the table at IGF. What's important about the IGF is the participation is broad. People come here with economic problems, with social problems, with technical problems, with legal problems, and they layout an extraordinary menu of them thanks to the Multistakeholder Advisory Group which puts together the program. The value of having all of those different stakeholders observing the effect of the Internet on their countries, their citizens, their companies and their social environment is exactly why IGF is so important.
I always look for reasons why certain things happen. Usually there's an incentive hiding behind people's behavior, behind the behavior of governments, behind the behavior of companies. If you don't like the behaviors, the best way to deal with it is to find a way to change the incentives, from the engineering point of view, a lot of the problems that we hear about deserve technical response. Many of the problems that we discuss here at IGF involve other kinds of responses whether it is business policy, economic policy, transnational data transfers, exchange of information, exchange of value, all of these issues are going to have to be addressed by a rather broad range of parties, not just the engineers. I wish it were the case that the engineers could solve everything. I will confess in public, I don't think we can. We can try to help! What's important about IGF from my point of view is that all of you and all of you sitting around this table articulate the problems that need attention and maybe hint at where and how they can be addressed. We can't solve the problems here in the IGF. It is not organized around that idea. You can articulate them, help us understand where we can best address those issues and that's what I look for in my response to why the multistakeholder model is so important and why the IGF needs to continue its work.
Thank you very much.
>> VICTOR LAGUNES: Gonzalo Navarro from the Latin American Internet society.
>> GONZALO NAVARRO: I don't know what to say after Vint Cerf just said what he said.
Let me introduce myself, I'm Gonzalo Navarro. I'm from an organization that is comprised of companies that provide Internet service in Latin America and the Caribbean. We are thankful for the opportunity to participate here in Mexico in this event which is truly quite extraordinarily set up and requires great amounts of efforts so thank you for that.
When it comes to my time, I know I must be brief. This MAG, multistakeholder model and how these types of international processes are planned, it seems to me that it is simple as to how it works. The multistakeholder model doesn't have a futuristic vision of how to take action. We're dealing with a reality that we're currently living and that we are articulating in this Forum with multiple stakeholders, different people, different opinions on what's going on and regarding Internet Governance. It is also seen in international processes that are very complex and have been carried out, for example, transition of IANA, which was carried out with great levels after two years. These are tangible realities we can see today and that are successful. In my opinion, these multistakeholder processes are a good way to understand and integrate different visions and to, of course, understand how different people add value to these decisions that are to be made in the end.
As we move on to a complete digitalization of our activities, of our economies and the way we're facing life we need to understand that this multistakeholder model is part of the DNA of the Internet. This DNA, which is open, interoperable, resilient and we understand it needs to be a pillar that needs to be preserved and promoted. The success of the Internet as a facilitating instrument is reflected on the multistakeholder model. As an organization of the private sector, we understand that this way of understanding and carrying out international processes needs to be more successful every time, and this is why we wish for these processes to be maintained at an international level, as I mentioned, but also at the national level, this is a practical, healthy, sustainable, viable way to carry out these actions within a legitimate manner.
Thank you very much.
>> VICTOR LAGUNES: Thank you.
>> MOIRA PAZ‑ESTENSSORO: I need a clarification to make. I represent the Latin America Development Bank. And I would like to start by saying that I'm grateful for this invitation because the Development Bank's mission, either the IDB or ours, the Latin American Development Bank, and that is to reduce poverty, it works towards inclusion, it advocates for Sustainable Development, and the only way to achieve all of these is by reducing inequalities at every level.
To this day, of course, the discussion around the Internet revolves around a cross‑cutting topic in order to see improvements, to achieve inclusion and especially to fully ‑‑ to see a fulfillment of the citizens of our countries. In our opinion investing in infrastructure is paramount. Investing in infrastructure in order to have connectivity, in order to see inclusion, it accounts the least of 6% of the GDP in Latin America in infrastructure, only 3% is invested. That creates asymmetries, that creates differences. In Asia, more than 9% is invested in infrastructure and Latin America, 3%. That's major asymmetries not only in the continent but also in our own countries if we can consider the actual needs we cannot only consider that the private sector would be able to solve this but we need the participation of the public sector, the academia, universities, all of these, they're part of the solution.
I would like to say that as part of the Latin American Development Bank we support countries by deciding policy in preparing and financing infrastructure projects and the telecommunication projects, the capacity building, by promoting public‑private partnerships, Entrepreneurship systems and innovation projects for a productive transformation without labor, poverty, it will not be relieved. Without dignity, we will have no citizenry. We're discussing the Internet net, we have the inventor of the Internet with us, we have created citizens. To this day we can say for a fact that all of us that enjoy access to information through this means, we are full‑ fledged citizens, we demand our rights and we can ‑‑ we can perform our duties in a more easier way. CAF is working along with many for a connectivity strategy for broadband classroom access. That's going to change structurally our countries and we can do it. We can do it in a short time, in two to three‑year's time, thank you for this opportunity.
>> VICTOR LAGUNES: Thank you very much.
We'll now hear from Megan Richards.
>> MEGAN RICHARDS: Thank you very much, Victor.
I'll speak in English because I want to be more succinct. Almost everything that I wanted to say has been said. That's part of the problem of being at the end of the alphabet. I'm going to use my husband's name from now on, then I'll be closer to the beginning.
I'm going to just address two aspects which, again, have already been raised and a third one which no one has talked about. The first one relates to the importance of internationalized domain famous and use of local languages. This is a most important aspect in assuring that we reach and stop the digital divide and address the digital divide. In Europe we have in the European Union 23 official languages in addition to the many regional languages, local languages, et cetera, many of our languages which are written in Latin script also have funny letters or additions of accents, et cetera, in addition we have two other scripts, both Bulgarian and Greek. We recognize, understand particularly just in Europe how important it is to have access to the Internet in your local language and also in scripts that you can read and understand.
I think this is an area where we can really make a big difference in addressing the digital divide. This was raised by Steve Crocker and the minister from South Africa. That's one point.
The other one I want to address particularly relates to WSIS. WSIS was ‑‑ let's call it the placenta for the IGF and the review gave the IGF the new mandate, many of you mentioned how important it is as multistakeholder Forum. I think there is another aspect I want to underline with respect to the WSIS+10 outcome document and ‑‑ it was in the original WSIS document as well. That's that the multistakeholder approach must ensure that we have stakeholders that participate according to roles and responsibilities. There is a lot of complaints about experts over the last years, particularly in the political domain. Everyone is an expert according to his or her roles and responsibilities. That's why we have to exchange and ensure that everyone understands different perspectives. That's the second point.
The third one that no one talked about because it is a particularly European issue is something that we call the global Internet policy observatory. This is something that the European Commissi