Global Connect, IEEE, ISOC, ITU, UNESCO, WEF, and the World Bank - Advancing Solutions for Connectivity: Improving Global Coordination and Collaboration
05 December 2016 - A Pre-event on in Guadalajara,Mexico
>> KAREN McCABE: Good afternoon. We're going to wait for some folks to take their seats. We'll work with the venue as we have it here. I appreciate everyone's patience waiting to start. We know that lunch started the same time that this session started, so we wanted to give people an opportunity to grab something if they needed to.
Okay. So, we're going to jump right in. So, good afternoon. I'm Karen McCabe, and I'm with the IEEE. And I work on many of our collaborative efforts that address internet governance and connectivity. So, welcome to our day 0 event on advancing solutions for connectivity: Improving global coordination and collaboration. We have ICANN, IEEE, the International Telecommunication Union, UNESCO, the World Bank and the world economic forum. So, we also want to thank IGF for the opportunity to host this event. So, the way the afternoon will unfold, after some introductory remarks, we will launch into a series of lightning talks. One will be on a current set of themes, and then one will also be from a regional perspective. And we really wanted to be extremely interactive. I know it's a tight room. We will also have break‑out sessions that we can share our perspectives and learn from each other and see how we can advance solutions. So, let's get started.
I'll start by saying a few words on behalf of the IEEE. Just to set the context, we're known as one of the world's largest technical professional associations. We have over 430,000 members and our mission is to advance technology for humanity. The connecting the unconnected as you can see, is very near and dear to IEEE's heart. The way we advance technology for the advancement for humanity is we do this for hundreds of local communities around the world that we have. So today we're here to connect.
With this, I would like to start my remarks talking a little bit about interoperability. My roots, just for background, are in the technical standards word. Interoperability implies there's a range of vendors who work together. Things, systems, etc., work together seamlessly. It goes beyond just being compatible to full integration and flow. I think that categorizes the spirit of what we're trying to do at this session. That's why I bring this concept up. It's our collective work among the many projects and initiatives to connect the unconnected that will be able to meet the goals that we have put out for ourselves and reach the sustainable development goals as well.
It goes beyond compatibility and is a true form of organic interoperability. The purpose is to build the framework, our system, our network, basically our fabric, as we work to address global issues on a local level with a for human‑centered focus. There are many challenges and opportunities that sit in front of us. If we are to meet these goals set out for ourselves in connecting the unconnected and bringing the internet to those who don't have meaningful access at this point, there's more work to be done. But I think collectively, we can do wonderful things together. So, the good news is there's a growing visibility and awareness of the challenges of the work being done on connecting the unconnected, and we'll hear some of those stories. There are many significant initiatives and projects being driven by many organizations and bodies. These efforts are looking at a broad range of digital divide barriers: financing and investment, policy regulation and technology, to name a few.
So, the next phase is to see how we can connect our efforts and connect this framework in this network of interoperability and create this interoperability paradigm. And that's why we are here today and why IEEE and communities of technical experts are committed to working alongside everyone working on projects in the interconnectivity space.
Earlier in 2014, we stood up an internet initiative. And I have the original charge, if you will, to connect experts with policymakers. That initiative has given us a tremendous opportunity to get connected to many organizations doing impactful work in internet space, many of which are sitting on this stage alongside me today. We believe that we can connect our local communities to be part of a connectivity core or a larger community. And we're also pleased, as an example, we have our humanitarian folks from Tunisia this week who are doing tremendous things from a volunteer perspective, primarily working with libraries. If you stop by our booth, give a bit of a plug, you will learn what they're doing. It's just the spirit of what we're looking to accomplish today as well. And they epitomize that.
In closing I look forward to an amazing afternoon where we can learn from each other and we can advance solutions for meaningful and impactful connectivity. I will hand over the mic to my colleague, Joyce.
>> JOYCE DOGNIEZ: I hope for some fruitful discussions later this afternoon. Now considering the current political environment that we live in, the concept of an inclusive internet of an open and secure and trusted internet is crucial. And I think it's fair to say that all of us today in the room. We're very glad to see that the IGF has taken up the theme of access for development in the overall agenda. The renewal of the IGF mandate has reset the focus of the forum towards the sustainable development goals. It's now time to look concretely on how we can move forward. How we can have an impact and have a meaningful impact. A good example of how we can move things forward is a framework developed by the IGF on the policy options for connecting and enabling the next billion. This is concretely how the IGF can serve the community.
Now how do we move from speech to action and from action to relative positive impact? There are many examples of projects and Karen just mentioned a couple that show a positive impact on the lives of people. The internet society has funded and supported over 200 community projects globally over the last ten years, providing access to the internet of opportunity to people all over the world.
When mapping those projects to the SDGs, we realized that those projects directly or indirectly connected to and supported 14 out of the 17 SDGs. However, the positive impacts these projects have on people's lives are only possible if we work on this together. If all stakeholders come together to create an environment that enables an open, trusted, and affordable access to the internet. To preserve the internet as we know it, to make it better, safer, stronger.
Today to make development a reality, all of us need to work together on immediate steps to expand infrastructure, to foster skills and entrepreneurship, and develop a positive governance system. This is what at the internet society call a policy framework for an enabling environment. It will be important to walk away today after the discussions we have this afternoon with a plan that can be tangible contributions to the IGF and to link it to the main session on Friday on connecting and enabling the next billion.
>> KAREN McCABE: Thank you, Joyce.
>> UNKNOWN SPEAKER: Good afternoon everyone. ITE is thrilled to be working with all of you, and of course we, like others on this panel and others in the room, we, too, are resolved to work together to advance connectivity. Because this issue is far too big and far too important to be done alone. Connectivity, as many of you know, is deep in ITU's DNA, since our very beginning back in 1865. The key focus is about connectivity, and many of you are familiar with our connect 2020 agenda. Connect 2020 is a commitment by all governments, and it's an invitation to all stakeholders to work together to advance specific and measurable targets in the areas of growth, inclusiveness, sustainability, innovation, and partnerships. 3.9 billion... that's a figure that we will be hearing all throughout the week. 3.9 billion people that are still offline. When we look at the world's least developed countries, the situation is not good. In six LDCs, access is less than 3%. And we all know that the 2030 agenda, goal 9, 9C specifically, calls for all of us to strive to achieve universal and affordable access in LDCs by 2020. We have a lot of work to do. And in the words from this morning in the main session, we have a lot of unfinished business. Two weeks ago, the ITU launched the measuring the information society report, and what they showed in that report that as many of you know, 95% of the world's population lives in areas that are covered by mobile cellular. 84% of the world's population live in areas that are covered by mobile broadband networks. Yet $3.9 billion people are not on the internet. As Vince said, we have a lot of unfinished business to do, and that's what we can do this afternoon in our session.
We need to be focusing on demand. We need to be focusing on ways to drive demand and to stimulate demand and to do that, we have to tackle the challenge of affordability, because affordability is a major issue as costs are prohibitively high, in particular in developing countries. We also need to focus on digital literacy and skills. And of course, we need to build trust and confidence in our networks. We need to do more to minimize the negative impacts of cyber insecurity and cyber instability. We need to be innovating together, and we need to be focusing on SDG17. As I said, no single entity can do this alone. Believe that by working together, by sharing expertise and experience by sharing our insights, that we really can make real progress and we can accelerate growth for the global good.
A couple of months ago, many of us came together for the internet for all initiative. The minister is not here. He said coming together was is beginning. We did that. Keeping together was progress. And we're still together, so that's good. And working together is success. And I believe that all of us today and on ward can work together to make success and to ensure that those 3.9 billion people have access to the internet. Thank you.
[ Applause ]
>> KAREN McCABE: I'm going to pass this mic down to Manu.
>> MANU: We saw a small uptick, and what can we do as a community to really accelerate efforts to close the gap? In a meaningful way?
A lot of times at the IGFs, you hear about the multi-stakeholder model of internet governance. I think what we have done all together is make it real. I would say maybe two years ago, the technical community may not have been as organized as they are today thanks to Karen's leadership, IEEE's leadership. I would say that we didn't necessarily have important stakeholders and development banks at the table like they are today. I would say that we did not have global conveners and all the leadership that they can bring at the highest levels like we do today. I'm thrilled to see that we are making the model we talk about a reality when it comes to connectivity. Since we are in the Americas, I wanted to provide a bit of context about the state of connectivity here. 90% of the region is covered by mobile broadband. Closer examination of the figure reveals that only about 50% of the people are connected or online. Research into this cause points to multiple reasons: lack of locally relevant content and affordability among segments of the population.
The benefits of the internet are starting to come to the Americas. Many countries are progressing at a very fast rate. The United States, Mexico, Chile, Colombia, are among many to mention. Mexico ranges strong with 123 million users and an adoption rate of 56%. But we need to tell the other side of the story. Bolivia, Belize, and others are on the bottom. There's a reason why access is high in Colombia but low in Bolivia. There's a reason why it might be high in Chile and low in Guatemala. Some governments do much more than others to facilitate access for people in poor or remote areas. And the starting point for every country is to have a clear and comprehensive national broadband plan that allows for private investment, encourages competition, removes obstacles and takes advantage of schools, libraries and community centers. That's partly why the United States launched the global connect effort to bring an additional 1.25 billion people online by 2020. It's the right goal and there's a huge return on investment. According to one study, penetration levels across the developing world provides a rate of return as much as $17 for every one dollar spent.
Global connect had a new idea that it brought forth. The idea is that internet connectivity is as fundamental as roads, ports, electricity and infrastructure. We have learned through this initiative and through our outreach that typically only 1 or 2% of the budget goes to connectivity today. We think there's a demand for companies. And we have been thrilled with the support that we have received. The initiative has many roles. Second, to work in cooperation with multilateral development institutions to double lending to connectivity technologies by 2020. This was an agreement that we reached at the World Bank in April. We also reached another important agreement, which is to think about connectivity and how it can have impacts not only for governments but also for banks in providing better connectivity for hospitals and schools, etc. And finally, to harness... to implement solutions for high speed affordable access.
Since the launch, over 40 countries and several in the Americas have expressed support and we are thrilled to be partnering with them. When I first thought about launching the initiative, we got great advice from the network start‑up resource center. They encouraged us to take a listen‑first approach. Offer your services and your support to countries. Make sure that they are aware that the resources exist, and simply be there to help and listen to where they need the most help. Whether it's on the technical, investment, or industry side. With that humility, we can all succeed. We are so excited to be here today and grateful to our partners. We look forward to not only today's discussion but really trying to accelerate progress in the coming years. Thank you so much.
[ Applause ]
>> KAREN McCABE: It is wondered what the scientific and cultural organization has to do with connectivity or striving to achieve our common goal of universal internet access by 2020. First, we provide policy advice to member states in our domains. We are a clearinghouse because we're an independent broker in this field. We don't have any interests to protect. We facilitate international cooperation and we strengthen capacities including institutional capacities in member states. And of course, we have a very strong linguist civil society, and actually UNESCO's member states adopted the principles standing for human rights‑based open, accessible, and multi‑stakeholder shaped internet. So multi‑stakeholder is really part of it, too.
One first point that I want to make is clearly connectivity is not equal to providing universal access. Of course, we are fully working with everyone on connecting. Why do some people never use access? And of course, the competencies are mentioned and affordability was mentioned by some of you before, too. Meaningful content and the barriers of language where thousands of languages can actually not be accessed today are really barriers. Girls and women have less internet access and often it alters the skills. There are a number of barriers which add to the pure connectivity barrier. And I think we have come a far way also in terms of us acknowledging this. Before, sometimes a goal of UNESCO was the only one speaking on the second part of the same coin. And we heard today that several of us mentioned that. For us it is also important to walk the talk, to really... in fact, it is really relatively simple, as challenging as it might seem when I say that, to connect, for example, schools.
It is much more challenging to make good use of ICTs in teaching and learning, to train the teachers, to integrate, to produce content, to integrate it into the curriculum, to revise evaluations, to create policies. And walking the talk means also that we need to invest differently, and really provide substantial amounts from the outset when we conceive a project into the components. We are delighted to contribute to the efforts and of course we see the compliments in our work. And we see the necessity to bring both parts of the coin together.
And one last word on how we have about more than 70 offices and institutes through which we work, and 195 national commissions in nearly all states through which we work. We have about 550 actives. That's the part where we need to connect with everyone. Thank you.
>> UNKNOWN SPEAKER: We're switching here. Thank you, Karen, and thank you to the IEEE who really carries the weight to get us all here in the room and be able to have six hours together to try to solve these problems. And thanks to my co‑hosts who are here with me to really share how we believe what needs to be done. Over a year ago, we were challenged to the global connect initiative to connect 1.5 unconnected citizens of the world. There at that meeting was the president of the World Bank, Dr. Kim, who fully endorsed the initiative. We then followed that up with meetings during our spring meetings in April 2016, where we were very proud and honored to host Dr. Kim... excuse me. Dr. Kim and secretary John Kerry who came and basically, again, echoed the need to really marshal resources together. Because this is such a big, big issue that we have to deal with. And it's not going to be easy. It's not as easy as the mobile miracle was. We're going to have to be much smarter. It was reiterated that if we're going to bring online and make functional several billion people into the digital economy, we better do it quickly because the opportunity cost of not doing that is going to cost more highly than it would now.
We had two days of intensive, comprehensive workshops to try to solve this problem. I think we made great strides and had great discussion. So, you're asking is this all we do is meet? Well, no. We have to do more. And so, the World Bank's view is that we can do our part. With that little part, we hope to leverage big, big, big, big money, big, big technical assistance. What the world bank does, we have two organizations within us. There are actually five, but two that really are known as the financiers. The World Bank and the international finance corporation. So, we're saying let's get together. Let's create the World Bank group broadband initiative. We're looking internally first. Before we can really expect to be the world leader that we can be. In August of this year, our president, Jim Kim, and CEO of the IFC came together and made a commitment at the TCAT, the Tokyo international conference on African develop and said we're going to invest $4 billion. Well, that's nice, but where is it going to get us? We expect to get 250 million more people online, and we expect that with this amount, we can leverage another five times that. If we do that, and our donor partners also do that, we may solve this, so that's what we're going to do. We're going to work differently internally and meet those objectives over the next ten years. We're trying to do our part and with all of your assistance, I think we can do much, much more. I look forward to sharing ideas with you this afternoon and really moving this towards results. Thank you.
[ Applause ]
>> NIGEL: Good afternoon, and thank you very much for inviting ICANN to be a part of this as well. I wanted to... I thought there was an advantage in going last, because I think... I think in reflecting on what's been said, there's a number of clear issues that come out of it for us in particular. I'll say a bit about what ICANN contributes to this later on. I won't speak for too long. First of all, what are the positives? Because there are some negatives, but what are the positives? I think the positives are that we're in this room talking. The positives are that governments, businesses, civil societies, civil society organizations are committed to the goals. So, that's the positive. If we weren't all committed, if we weren't in this room all committed to achieving these goals, then we wouldn't have success. So, the positives are we're here. The positives are we haven't got our act together before, but perhaps we have now, and the positives are that there is a real agenda going forward. As you've heard with projects in numerous countries and the World Bank and of course, with the government initiative as Manu has been outlining. There's lots of positives. And technology is going in the right direction as we'll hear later on. The technology is leading us into an area where we should be able to do much more. The goals set out in the 2030 agenda at the U.N. last year should be realizable in terms of technology.
But where is the failing? Where is the bad news? Because there has to be bad news. I'm not saying bad news is good. But if we listen to what is said, if we look at what is... if we look at the statistics. If we look at the take‑up rates for broadband in Latin America and elsewhere, there must be bad news. Where is that bad news and what can we do about it? We heard at telecom world the fantastic initiatives that are taking place in the northern African corridor. Connectivity. Lots of money, lots of initiatives, lots of effort to do connection. But we also heard from operators at that conference, they said yes! You as a northern African government, you're committed to this agenda and the sustainable development goals and connectivity. So why are you taxing us? Why are you charging us for 4G spectrum? Why are the prices so high? Why aren't you doing pairing?
Why don't you have independent regulation? Why don't you have competition? Why don't you teach in your schools?
Why is there agenda gap? These are the questions that we have to ask as well. Because unless we get those fundamentals right as well, then all of the other positives aren't going to really offset those disadvantages. So, we have the environment to do this. We have everyone sitting in the room. And we really must do better in terms of some of the fundamental policy legislative and directions. And there's also the other outside factors as well. Cyber‑security, privacy, intellectual property. Yes, they are connected. Yes, they do have important connects in terms of how the sustainable development goals are going be realized there are positives, but there's an awful lot of work to do. ICANN is a player. We coordinate the domain name system. We introduce international domain names. We're committed to multi‑linguicism. We're working on universal acceptance to the new domain names can be accepted. We have to have this wider conversation as well. Thank you very much.
[ Applause ]
>> MODERATOR: Nigel should have went last.
>> ALEX WONG: I see many friends and partners in the room that I'm looking forward to catching up with other the course of the week. We're also together with global connect and IEEE, maybe the newer actors to this space. We at the world economic forum saw that we needed to bring together partners, multi-stakeholder collaboration around this issue of fundamental internet for all. I'm pleased that we're together as IGF because I think we're trying to show a couple messages. This should be a solvable problem. There's individual solutions that all of you in this room are probably involved with, or global solutions. If we can just all work together, we have to be able to solve this issue. I think the second point, therefore is, and this is the work we have been doing. It's been echoed by other panelists. This is an eco‑system issue. It's not just infrastructure or affordability. Our framework also includes the need for skills and awareness and also for content. And that's why everyone in the room has to be working together if we're going to address the issue.
Therefore, there could be others on the panel at this front line as well, and I'll just mention a few of the other partners that have been part of the global effort to work together. I've named organizations on purpose because I think as global organizations representing an association of some sort or a governmental or intergovernmental or civil society on a global level, we're trying to work together globally to try to come to you together as one voice and one effort. That's in the form of two areas that we're trying to help work together with everyone here on the panel on that we're looking at specifically. One is on a set of global topics. So, later on in the lightning rounds, these topics have been building on these global discussions on a series of topics where we think everyone needs to be working together on in terms of turning the common themes into actions. That is how the first round of lightning talks are shaped. The second element, which is part of Doreen, let's take it to action is on the country regional break‑outs. I'm happy at the forum that we've been trying to broker a couple models, but collectively, us on the panel have made a commitment that in 2017, we will try to come up with a portfolio of five to ten countries where we can all agree to try to coordinate together. It's not just all of us from the non‑business side but the corporate partners sitting in the room like Facebook and Microsoft and others in the room that I'm sure I'm missing. A year from now, when we come back, I hope we're moving into country operational phase, where we're creating a platform where we can all work together. That's why all of you coming from your different organizations are invited to be part of that journey over the course of the week. Please come talk to any of us to find out how to get more involved. This is only going to be solvable if we have everyone work together. I'll stop there since we have a lot to cover over the course of the next few hours as well as the next week. I want to thank, again, all of our partners on the panel and those in the room because, as I said, this should be a solvable problem and I think this is a great opportunity to get more momentum in the IGF.
[ Applause ]
>> KAREN McCABE: Well, thank you. We're going to move into our lightning talks. Thank you, Alex, for setting the tone on the topics or themes that Alex briefly touched upon. To make it a bit more comfortable up here, because we have eight topics and eight people as we can tell is a little tight up here. What I'm going to ask is the first four, if you will, of the lightning talk speakers, we'll have our moderator come up. We'll have Christopher, Paul, Mitchell, Doreen, please stay. And then we will swap out to the other four speakers if that's more convenient and comfortable. Be careful stepping down there.
While everyone is getting settled up here, we're going hear from speakers on eight themes in a lightning talk concept. It's meant to be three or four minutes to impart a lot of information quickly to sort of set the stage. After this session, we want to hear from the audience. Eight themes are a lot to have eight break‑out sessions. We will do a rapid-fire voting, and my colleague, Justin, will help facilitate that. No pressure, Justin, to down select, if you will, another standards term, the five top themes that people want to have break‑outs around based on what you're hearing today. We'll go through two rounds of lightning talks here quickly, and then we'll get into that voting stage.
>> MODERATOR: Now to Christopher.
>> CHRISTOPHER: There are a vast array of businesses on supply and demand side, but no one is collecting data on them, or if they are, it's done in an idiosyncratic way. I believe it's important to focus in on metrics that will deliver the kinds of comparisons that we need to make in order to make... to help ministries, investment banks and other financial institutions and people who are bombarded by people's claiming their technology or their approach is the greatest new thing for connecting more people to the internet to make some sense of that, to actually understand the situations, the context in which you will use this technology versus that technology and to understand basically how effective they are. That's why we are leading an effort called one world connected and it explains why I'm wearing orange converse tennis shoes and not wearing a tie. A whole bunch of issues are being posed in terms of gathering data. The need for baseline metrics. You need to have people in the projects before to understand what the difference is to get a before snapshot as well as an after snapshot. The need to tie metrics not just to connectivity but to sustainable development goals as mentioned earlier. Health care, education, because we... the internet lovers tend to think of it as a value in itself and we forget that it is instrumental to other values. Vast number of other problems. Confidentiality. It's hard to get people who have the data to release it. The need for independent verification. All of these are problems that can be solved, but they are difficult ones. We're trying to, with a university‑based platform where we can do the verification and confidentiality in ways that are helpful. It remains a challenge and developing the advanced metrics to measure the SDGs remains the biggest challenge because that's where the scholars who are working after this field for decades have yet to settle on a clear set of metrics. I will close by inviting you, we actually have a booth. In booth number 1 in the village if you want to learn more about the effort. We do have coffee for free from 9:00 in the morning to 2:00 in the afternoon.
>> MODERATOR: We will ask speakers to do about three speakers and then take a few questions. So now we will turn over to Paul on coordination on basic digital skills training.
>> PAUL: It's this one? Okay. So increasingly today's jobs require ICT skills. Roughly half of all jobs today probably require ICT skills, and this is expected to rise. That means that it's critical that we focus on insuring today's youth get the digital skills that they need to be successful and productive. Nigel asked where the bad news is, so here's some. There's 149 million youth in the Latin region and less than 50% of them finish high school. One in five are neither working nor in school. There's double the youth unemployment versus adult unemployment rate. 17% live in poverty. And the piece of good news is there are 6 million new IT jobs in this region. If that trend continues, it will be difficult for countries in this region to compete on a global scale. So, there's many focused on the issue of affordable access, and we will talk more about that throughout the day. Driving down prices for connectiveness is great, but it's not sufficient. Even if connectivity prices are low, it has to be addressed on several levels. There's a bunch of factors that need to be addressed over time starting with basic numeracy and literacy. Some include things like ensuring locally relevant content and services in the local language, insuring services are accessible, ensuring a focus on women and girls for gender equity. Developing proactive teacher training to incorporate the use of ICTs throughout the education curricula rather than as an afterthought. Creating incentives for teachers to learn these as new scales. So, these topics were all addressed at the recent global connect. It was mentioned in the last session. Among the opportunities that were noted for collaboration was acceleration across sectors. First coming to recognition that there are really user skills and creator skills that we talk about in the digital skills world where user skills are basic skills to make use of commercial devices and applications and have the ability to use them in a sort of sip call working environment, where creator skills include programming capabilities and advanced content production. Not everyone will be a coder, but everyone will need at least user skills. There's already a wealth of training curricula for user and creator skills including content from internet society and also entities including Microsoft. We're focused on enabling inclusion. In Latin America, we collaborate closely with the trust for Americas and others. And the secretaries of youth in different countries. Through these programs and partnerships, we push for labor inclusion processes, IT skills development specifically for youth and young women. And at the policy level we're supporting the adoption of youth policy recommendations including coding in schools, special curricula and non‑formal education in partnership with UNESCO and OIJ.
We're convinced this kind of collaboration is critical to achieving long term success. I look forward to taking questions in the rest of the session today.
>> MODERATOR: The next topic is gender in the digital divide. Doreen?
>> D0REEN BOGDAN-MARTIN: I feel like the pressure is on here. So, last year as many of you know in the plus 10 review and negotiations, we concluded that we fell short one of the commitments that was made and that was the commitment on achieving equal participation for women in the information society. We know that there's 250 million women offline. We know that the gap is growing. We know that that gap is bigger in least developed countries with 31%, and in Africa, 23%. And we know that 1.7 billion women in lower middle income countries do not own a phone. So why does this matter? I'm going to tell you briefly a little story. I got to meet a founder of a program based in Venezuela. Iliana set up this center to provide ICT training to women who had no education and to women that came from low income groups, and to women that, in most cases, were subject to domestic violence. She brought in these women. She taught them ICT skills. They had the opportunity to receive counseling and support in other areas and so far, she has graduated 20,000 women that have gone on and be able to have this experience as giving a lasting impact economically for all of these women.
This story shows that empowering women in the digital world impacts economic opportunities, and leads to greater empowerment for women all over the world. We know that if we improve access to ICTs, if we provide the necessary digital skills, we give tremendous opportunities and benefits that can be amplified across society, benefit families, and societies as a whole. Bridging the digital gender gap is an economic imperative for the world. Thank you.
>> MODERATOR: Thank you. Great story. And the final speaker is Alex Wong. Alex?
>> ALEX WONG: Should also let Doreen go last, too. Infrastructure. So, this theme is money. So, 70 trillion dollars. That's the amount of money that sits in long‑term investor's funds, looking to spend somewhere. Many of you know there's been a lot of discussion about getting more money into general infrastructure. This theme is about how can we direct some of that money to ICT connectivity infrastructure? I would argue that the low‑hanging fruit are done. We've already made the progress to get us to the 4 billion connected so far. The last 3.9 billion, and in particular the last billion, there is no financial business model right now. So, the topic of blended finance, and I'll read you that definition if some of you are not familiar with it. It's defined as the strategic use of grants or grant equivalent instruments together with non‑grant financing from private and or public sources to provide financing on terms that would make projects financially viable or sustainable. So, this topic is about how can we figure out how to connect into the 70 trillion plus dollars that are sitting there looking for a home to be spent. And of course, the long‑term investors themselves. That's what we want to talk about. How can we put the infrastructure on the agenda of the long-term investors?
Right now, it's probably way down the list as compared to other infrastructure opportunities, and I think that's what we want to talk more about how to do that. I'll give a final example of some of the work happening. It is an organization that has been supported by the regional by laterals, trying to create a data base of templates so that any owner can put into this system the set of parameters that are needed to define an infrastructure project. They so far have 35 templates. Wed need to have enough level of detail where a project owner could be all the parameters on this data base. So, that's just one example of some of the stuff happening already where the ICT infrastructure has to be added to some of these opportunities. Thanks.
>> MODERATOR: So, that's the first four themes. We have time for two questions. If you raise your hand, there's microphones in the room if you have a question, please. Is there a microphone there?
>> [ Question off microphone ]
>> ALEX WONG: So, the question alludes to the other way to promote more investing is to lower the costs of the business case. And the cost equation touches on Nigel's comments which are all the taxes, I presume, and all that the governments are putting on infrastructure. I think we should be more than happy to explore that as a side angle. That's a topic on its own. But it's a very good point. We should look at that issue as well. It's not covered in one of the other topics right now is it? Probably embedded in a lot of the topics, but we should absolutely explore that more.
>> MODERATOR: We can get more questions?
>> AUDIENCE MEMBER: I have a mic, so I will take advantage of that. I'm from the international association of libraries and institution, and I have a question for Paul about digital skills. What's particularly effective? Where should we be looking to do this? I'm speaking from the perspective of where you're working towards?
>> PAUL: There are regular gathering places. We have focused on schools, libraries, health care institutions and public facilities as places for connectivity. The issue with skills training is how to make sure that you get the right kind of instruction to the people who need it. Which means in the schools themselves seems like a super ideal place if you can start it early enough. If you... we see this where we spent a lot of time investing in working the curriculum with teachers and other partners and getting teachers so they were comfortable using ICTs within the context of the classes themselves. That model seems to work. That's a unique... that's one situation in the world.
At the same time, it's important and it's also true in the Kenya scenario in that particular community, it's in the schools and also a community hot spot. Several of them. And we've made an effort to try to make sure that connectivity is not just this isolated thing.
>> CHRISTOPHER: I think Paul is being too modest. Scores went up across the board. It was a dramatic impact. That's one way to do it. They have seen improvement in scores in every grade eventually, and every subject. We're collecting this data. There's some suggestions about doing it in if community based institutions. There's suggestion that interactive is better than static training. It's important to have sustaining efforts. You need to have a way to connect to other people doing similar things to leverage it out. If it's a one‑time shot it often doesn't have the depth that it would otherwise have.
>> MODERATOR: On that note, we will switch to the second panelists. Please join me in thanking them.
>> MODERATOR: The next topic.
>> UNKNOWN SPEAKER: Thank you. I co‑founded the people‑centered internet. And the major priority is that we step into this frontier, this new frontier and actually do things because we don't understand enough about it to theorize about it. We have to learn from practice. In all of human history, a few moments stand out which change human lives irrevocably. When we stood upright. When we discovered fire. When we drew. Invented writing, discovered the printing press, when we began organizing ourselves beyond the family unit. We are at the brink of the next shift when all of humanity will be connected to the internet. No surprise, then, that one question as risen to the top of the global agenda. Is it to be my tribe or our world? Is it better to close borders or to open minds and openly work in diverse cultures and perspectives? Encounters beyond diverse people will threaten tightly held world views. New connections threaten personal safety. New knowledge brings us to frightening frontiers that will take time to tame. Advances in science, technology, and math can be fearsomely destructive or incredibly empowering.
If we want to come together in the future, we have to paint a path to the future clearly enough that everyone can see, touch, taste, and feel it enough to want to create it together. The digital gap working group has a commitment to work at the local community level. It's hard to get the local voices. So often we are sitting planning for people whose daily lives are foreign to us. So, we're taking advantage of two major networks that are out there at the local level. The IEEE has members in 160 countries. The national federation of library associations has 320,000 public libraries. They can provide a grid for us to tap into what's going on at the local level, what they care about, what the leaders consider as priorities. We have to tap that knowledge.
So, in mapping the gaps, we are recommending in our working group, that we tap the local communities, start with them and what's important to them. Because that's the only way we can sustainably going ahead with the sustainable development goals.
[ Applause ]
>> MODERATOR: Thank you. On the topic of the sustainable development goals are Dominique.
>> DOMINIQUE: I'm happy to be here on behalf of my colleagues and the members of the GSMA who work on a number of projects with so many partners here in addressing a number of the issues that you've already heard today. But I will be talking specifically about measuring, basically, impact. And the GSMA launched an impact in February or March, actually, on SDG impact. And specifically, we looked at sort of four specific areas of measurement in targeting. And we looked at target filtering, which had 169 different targets including economic targets as well as policy, investment and things like that.
We also looked at drivers and what drivers were important in delivering different aspects of SDGs. We identified 110 different drivers from sort of all over from different industries and from direct and indirect impacts as well. We did an assessment on the drivers, and we didn't just look at the mobile industry, which obviously is very much important to our view, but we also looked at the other industries that play an important role in conjunction with the mobile industry on driver assessment. And finally, we looked a metric identification and measurement. So, we looked at 90 countries where we could have a look at the different SDG targets.
We developed baseline scores and did a number of methodological approaches and different inputs to it. But one thing that came out of this is though this report was the first report on this, what we're hoping to do and I'm hoping to get your feedback, is we're hoping to build up a set of impact assessments over the many years based on a number of different things and our methodology will change behind that. But, accelerating the impact, we noted out of all of this, requires three different things. And I think we've talked quite a lot about it already. We heard about scaling networks. The investment for creating connectivity and actually scaling it and making it quicker. As well as access to delivering inclusion as Paul mentioned earlier as well, through education. We looked at innovating core technologies and services and realizing that acceleration of this is going to be quite key in order to deliver on the SDGs, and finally the development of policy as well as partnerships as we heard earlier. These were all key things that came out of that. Finally, just out of our report and thinking about how to look at SDGs and measuring the impact, we committed as a mobile industry along with a number of other industries to develop a bigger road map with a focus on humanitarian assistance initially, but just over all to work closely with them.
To become an advocate for reporting annually throughout a variety of different places on SDG impact and to use the convening power of organizations to continue to talk about this.
So, that is my perspective in terms of SDG impact monitoring, and I'm happy to answering questions and I look forward to talking with all of you further.
>> MODERATOR: The next theme is E government services.
>> UNKNOWN SPEAKER: Thank you, Michael. I would like to share three trends that we observed through our survey. Since we started looking at E governments in 2003. The first is integration. We witnessed integrated services. In 2003, most were mainly listings of websites. Now, more than 90 countries provide partners. Much progress is also seen... which is integrated online of mobile services. More than 50% of countries have some form of this. Through business license applications across sectors. My second point of second part is on inclusion. More governments including the least developed countries now bring services specific to how the poorest and different segments of the population. This ranged from helping women to find domestic jobs, monitoring agricultural crop prices, encouraging students to participate in open data hack‑a‑thon, among others.
Governments are doing more from consultation in spending in urban developments to solving community problems among local authorities. Inclusion ranges to digital for all. The last 10% in advanced country like Denmark or to provide basic online service through digital offices everywhere.
Last is emerging of intelligent online services. From the use of check boxes to provide personalized intelligence. This increasing sophistication of digital services are embraced in concepts of smart cities. But just discussion of challenging issues. The least developed countries are still lagging behind. Provided integrated inclusive intelligent approach, privacy of personal data to cyber security, technical difficulties across agencies, lack of digital skills.
Moving forward, government needs to ask the hard questions. Not just how many services we can put online but also how often the services are used. And not just increasing the number of users, but leaving no one behind in pursuing digital government and development.
>> MODERATOR: Thank you. Now last but not least, the youth perspective. Talking about youth and connectivity from the youth observatory.
>> UNKNOWN SPEAKER: Good afternoon. Well, I want to talk about youth and connectivity. I'm sorry. I'm going to start saying youth is shaping the internet but how and why? I can tell you about great examples such as Facebook created by college students. Or a girl that I just met. She came out from... teaches while talking about her heritage.
Some of us were born connected, so‑called digital natives. But others can still access the internet as we know it. How is youth affected by the lack of connectivity? We have examples in many areas. They don't have time to do it. They have to work for the family and don't have time to do this. In Brazil in the Amazon there are networks set up to connect.
Even if they have a cell phone, they can play Pokémon go, because Googles maps don't map the streets in their area. So, they can't play.
How are we accessing the internet? We have this problem and we have to prioritize the mobile world.
We should raise awareness. Especially about the youth who doesn't read. How can I say it? They don't have the education, how someone said in the first table. How can we help the youth? There is a youth of youth initiatives who are here. They are here, like the one that I'm a part of. So, what can be done? We want to connect those who are not connected, the young people who are not connected. I want to talk to you about this and hear what you have to say to me. Thank you.
[ Applause ]
>> MODERATOR: Thank you so much for that perspective. We want to make sure everyone including the people that we think of as digital natives that they can become digital natives. So, thank you for that. So again, we have time for two questions, and then we will have the hard task of choosing five out of these themes to do break‑outs on.
>> AUDIENCE MEMBER: Thank you. I want to just share quickly the perspective of central Asia. It is a region which is land‑locked. It's most far located from the sea. It's very mountainous. Highest countries in the world. It's in a difficult neighbor. So as a result, we have very expensive internet, which is expensive in absolute terms and in relation to income. It's unreliable and it's very slow. But what I found out is that we, in the region and probably in other developing regions, too, live in oblivion. Unknown unknowns. We don't know how bad the internet is. We did a study, and the first one a year ago, and just then realized the situation with the internet in the region. I think using this opportunity, I would call on the international organizations in the community. Realizing these challenges that we face. Thank you.
>> MODERATOR: I thank you for that. Another question?
>> AUDIENCE MEMBER: I might say something about that.
>> MODERATOR: Please.
>> AUDIENCE MEMBER: I think the People's Republic of China initiative is a tremendous opportunity for central Asia. And if the global community can work out how to take advantage of that, there's an anticipated $48 trillion to be invested in the one belt one road, plus the maritime roads. I have spoken with the IEEE smart village people, and they're excited about what we can do locally. Imagine the new silk route, which could have internet kiosks all along the way.
>> MODERATOR: One more question? Okay. Great. We'll go to the voting. First, again, please join me in thanking the four speakers.
[ Applause ]
>> MODERATOR: This is where you all get to decide how this is going to go. It's a shame that we're going to have to kick three of these topics off the island. So, what I will do... you know what? I'm going to take the facilitator's prerogative. I heard two loud rounds of applause. One for gender and the digital divide. And the second for youth and connectivity. Does everybody agree that they should be immune and move on? Do you agree? Come on, they were great.
[ Applause ]
The first one, improving data for internet inclusion. Give a round of applause if you would like to have that as a break‑out group? Okay. The next is coordination on basic digital skills training.
[ Applause ]
Okay. Next, we have infrastructure development and impact investing for connectivity.
[ Applause ]
Okay. The next is mapping gaps for connect to thrive. Round of applause if you would like to break into that one? Okay. You're off the island. The next is sustainable development goals impact framework.
[ Applause ]
Okay. You're off the island, too. Next is E government services. I think we have our top three.
[ Speaking off mic ].
>> UNKNOWN SPEAKER: Read them off.
>> MODERATOR: Improving data for internet inclusion, Christopher. Coordination on basic digital skills training, Paul, and impact investing for connectivity with Alex.
This may change the votes.
[ Laughter ]
>> KAREN McCABE: So how we're going to work this, it's a little bit of a tight room. So, bear with us as we arrange everyone. The lightning talk speakers on those topics will be the facilitators of those discussions. We will just sort of do it in order at the tables. I will let Justin handle that difficult task.
>> JUSTIN: We're going to do this. Clearly, we have tables and we can't move them. I'm going to walk down and ask everybody in one row to turn their chairs around. The thing is this. I know people want to go to different things. So, we're going to have to do this very quickly. I'm going to need you to turn your chairs around before you go. I'm going to go down the rows and I will come back up and identify the topics. So, we're going to skip this row right here. So, I'm going to ask this row right here, get up, turn your chairs around. This row right here? Same here, get up and turn your chairs around. You work them and get them to do it. And these rows right here.
So, what we're going to do, these back two rows, that is going to be youth and connectivity right here. If you want to join that group, be at one of these two tables, okay? Who do we have here? Do you mind just guiding and making sure that everybody goes where they're supposed to go?
Okay. The next one is... what was the next one?
>> UNKNOWN SPEAKER: I don't know what the last one was.
>> JUSTIN: Gender gaps at this table right here. And then we have improving data for internet inclusion in these two rows right here. And then we'll do investment in these two rows. Yep. And then the mapping gaps up over there. Yes. And now you all have, as Karen mentioned, the individuals who spoke earlier are going to be leading the groups. So, get going and come up with some results.
[ Breakout sessions ]
>> KAREN McCABE: As you get into your discussion groups, what we're asking is to look at it from three perspectives.
What are the challenges or work that needs to be done around that theme? One is what are the opportunities that are there? Any success stories that you might hear about those particular themes, and the other is thinking in terms of who would be involved? Who might be missing from that topic? Who do we need to have at the table to help us get to that solution? So, it's looking at it from challenges, opportunities, real work going on in that space as well as who and what and where needs to be involved so we can add that to the road map. Thank you.
[ Break‑out sessions ]
>> MODERATOR: Hi everyone. This is your two‑minute warning. Pull out your main themes and identify who your spokesman for your group will be and we'll be hearing from each group in about five minutes. Thank you.
>> MODERATOR: So we hit that time. Can each group send your spokesman? Each group's person please come to the podium. Michael, you win the prize for getting there first.
>> UNKNOWN SPEAKER: Hi. Everyone. We're going to get started. I think we're missing one break‑out group. If you're that person, come to the table. Hi everyone. Thank you for being part of the various discussions on the five things that were selected for more deep conversation. And with that, we're going to hear from each of the groups.
>> UNKNOWN SPEAKER: So we divided on four questions and we tried to answer some of them. We have like people from Mexico and Lebanon. So, we tried to get some experiences and see which we had in common. Our access to knowledge is not good if you don't have access to the internet. This could be something really bad. Social ability, being a young person, you don't know where the parties and the meetings and social events. In some cultures, like in Lebanon there are bigger problems in connectivity like war and troubles with refugees and this kind of stuff. We discover... not discover, but we find out, we use most social networks. We can have troubles with future bubbles and fake news and who shapes our talks and what we do in our lives. We have who affects our privacy. Access is limited by current issues like the disrespect to the net neutrality principle. So, we only can access to some products, some platforms that may not be good. So, are young people better prepared to deal with the internet?
We are digital natives, but we don't have too much digital literacy. So, we have this lack of digital literacy that could harm our views on the internet. We are shaping the -- as I said. Internet, as I said. Maybe we can do these things on our houses and universities, but when it comes to policymaking, we are like, not represented. We tried to find some solutions on this, like parenting. Try to teach the parents to talk to the kids, talk to their children. And also, try to use the libraries on digital literacy. Try to give them a new role. Someone said like in Mexico, they do... they use Wikipedia to create local content, hack‑a‑thons. And how can young people get involved with policymaking? There are those already that have these programs for the next generations and young people. And also, empowerment through youth organizations created by young people and who are directed by young people.
>> UNKNOWN SPEAKER: I don't know if the group benefitted from the switch, but I did: I thought it was a great discussion that we had and I'll spend a little bit of time talking about it. So, we divided the unconnected into two groups. First the ones who could get access if they wanted to. Maybe they live in the cities or in connected areas. Maybe it's affordable. But they have just chosen not to. And a lot of surveys say that some people just don't see the interest or have the skills. So, for that group, we talked about increasing demand, focusing on demand and creating the business case through increasing the demand to create the need for investment because the more demand, the more it will be used and obviously then people can make the business case themselves to invest in those regions as people go online. And then we talked about the regions like we heard in the mountainous regions, the high cost regions, maybe with low population density. It's hard to build demand where there's no access. So here we talked about first creating sharing modelled to get some access in the villages so that people can connect. We talked about community and access to help set up the networks. Very low cost tools in these regions just to start to create the demand and make the business case using different technologies. Maybe satellite and other technologies to serve. Then we talked about another model that if the government is delivering a lot of services into those regions and it's quite expensive they can save significant money by delivering those services online rather than through more physical means, try to make the case for that, take those savings and investing them up front so that the government becomes the anchor tenant for this network that over the long term they will save money from being able to use. And of course, that creates the demand, because those services that are delivered online have to be received online. So, if it's paycheck or other services, people will go online through these shared networks to use them. And finally, had an example to help increase outside investment where they had small projects where they just didn't have the scale or the risk. Bundle them together under a portfolio of projects. So, you get a lot of scale and you reduce the risk by spreading it out over a number of projects and increase the investment that way. And eventually you will have a nice portfolio of projects that will be invested and sustainable by bundling them together.
So, that was our read‑out. Thank you.
>> UNKNOWN SPEAKER: We were talking about data and getting the challenges. We took it very literally. I will take it in challenges, opportunities, and who should be involved in taking the charge literally. But we're always looking to leverage existing data sets, but it's much harder than you this. If you wonder why to compare the data collected, it just varies, and you have to unravel that. It may require sampling and validation to try to make it work better. The other thing that's said is there are certain kinds of data that are harder to gather. Someone asked about legal impediments. Some laws are very easy to study. They are broad brush. Some require a great deal of analysis to understand what they are. Another person commented we are short on impact data and what is comparable. There is a tendency to want to become more specific. But at that point, countries and regions vary in terms of what is appropriate. Finding the way to do that, clustering different types of count